Investigation of Carmine Dye Removal by Green Chitin Nanowhiskers Adsorbent

Seyyed Salar Meshkat, Mojtaba Nasiri Nezhad, Mohammad Reza Bazmi


A green adsorbent was evaluated to remove the carmine dye. Chitin nanowhiskers were synthesized via acid hydrolyzed method. The diameter of the synthesized chitin whiskers was about 20 nm and had 200 to 400 nm length. The morphology and chemical structure of the synthesized adsorbent were investigated by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), X- Ray Diffraction (XRD). The adsorption process parameters of the carmine dye removal were optimized as follow: adsorption time (3 h), initial carmine dye solution concentration (100 ppm), mass loaded of the chitin whiskers suspension 1% weight of chitin nanowhiskers, as an adsorbent (1.4 g). The removal efficiency of the carmine dye adsorption was about 85% which is modified 15% better than the previous researches. The results indicated that carmine dye molecules were absorbed by hydrogen bonding mechanism due to the N-H bond in the chitin nanowhiskers structure.


Adsorption; Dye Removal; Carmine; Nanaochitin.


Mahdy Samar, M., M.H. El-Kalyoubi, M.M. Khalaf, and M.M. Abd El-Razik. “Physicochemical, Functional, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Properties of Chitosan Extracted from Shrimp Wastes by Microwave Technique.” Annals of Agricultural Sciences 58, no. 1 (June 2013): 33–41. doi:10.1016/j.aoas.2013.01.006.

Haldorai, Yuvaraj, and Jae-Jin Shim. “An Efficient Removal of Methyl Orange Dye from Aqueous Solution by Adsorption onto chitosan/MgO Composite: A Novel Reusable Adsorbent.” Applied Surface Science 292 (February 2014): 447–453. doi:10.1016/j.apsusc.2013.11.158.

Abd El-Magied, Mahmoud O., Ahmed A. Galhoum, Asem A. Atia, Ahmad A. Tolba, Mai S. Maize, Thierry Vincent, and Eric Guibal. “Cellulose and Chitosan Derivatives for Enhanced Sorption of erbium(III).” Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 529 (September 2017): 580–593. doi:10.1016/j.colsurfa.2017.05.031.

Shajahan, A., S. Shankar, A. Sathiyaseelan, Karthik S. Narayan, V. Narayanan, V. Kaviyarasan, and S. Ignacimuthu. “Comparative Studies of Chitosan and Its Nanoparticles for the Adsorption Efficiency of Various Dyes.” International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 104 (November 2017): 1449–1458. doi:10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.05.128.

Tran, Hai Nguyen, Sheng-Jie You, Ahmad Hosseini-Bandegharaei, and Huan-Ping Chao. “Mistakes and Inconsistencies Regarding Adsorption of Contaminants from Aqueous Solutions: A Critical Review.” Water Research 120 (September 2017): 88–116. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2017.04.014.

Zeng, Jian-Bing, Yi-Song He, Shao-Long Li, and Yu-Zhong Wang. “Chitin Whiskers: An Overview.” Biomacromolecules 13, no. 1 (December 20, 2011): 1–11. doi:10.1021/bm201564a.

Kadokawa, Jun-ichi, Akihiko Takegawa, Shozaburo Mine, and Kamalesh Prasad. “Preparation of Chitin Nanowhiskers Using an Ionic Liquid and Their Composite Materials with Poly(vinyl Alcohol).” Carbohydrate Polymers 84, no. 4 (April 2011): 1408–1412. doi:10.1016/j.carbpol.2011.01.049.

M. Mincea, A. Negrulescu, V. Ostafe, Preparation, Modification, and Applications of Chitin Nanowhiskers: A Review, Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci. 30 (2012) 225-242.

Oun, Ahmed A., and Jong-Whan Rhim. “Effect of Isolation Methods of Chitin Nanocrystals on the Properties of Chitin-Silver Hybrid Nanoparticles.” Carbohydrate Polymers 197 (October 2018): 349–358. doi:10.1016/j.carbpol.2018.06.033.

Kumari, Suneeta, and Pradip Kumar Rath. “Extraction and Characterization of Chitin and Chitosan from (Labeo Rohit) Fish Scales.” Procedia Materials Science 6 (2014): 482–489. doi:10.1016/j.mspro.2014.07.062.

McKay, G., H. S. Blair, and J. R. Gardner. “Adsorption of Dyes on Chitin. I. Equilibrium Studies.” Journal of Applied Polymer Science 27, no. 8 (August 1982): 3043–3057. doi:10.1002/app.1982.070270827.

Smith, Brent, T. Koonce, and S. Hudson. "Decolorizing dye wastewater using chitosan." American Dyestuff Reporter 82, no. 10 (1993): 18-36.

Bhatnagar, Amit, and Mika Sillanpää. “Applications of Chitin- and Chitosan-Derivatives for the Detoxification of Water and Wastewater — A Short Review.” Advances in Colloid and Interface Science 152, no. 1–2 (November 2009): 26–38. doi:10.1016/j.cis.2009.09.003.

Xu, Rui, Jie Mao, Na Peng, Xiaogang Luo, and Chunyu Chang. “Chitin/clay Microspheres with Hierarchical Architecture for Highly Efficient Removal of Organic Dyes.” Carbohydrate Polymers 188 (May 2018): 143–150. doi:10.1016/j.carbpol.2018.01.073.

Dassanayake, Rohan S., Erandathi Rajakaruna, Hanna Moussa, and Noureddine Abidi. “One-Pot Synthesis of MnO 2 –chitin Hybrids for Effective Removal of Methylene Blue.” International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 93 (December 2016): 350–358. doi:10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2016.08.081.

Wawrzkiewicz, Monika, Przemysław Bartczak, and Teofil Jesionowski. “Enhanced Removal of Hazardous Dye Form Aqueous Solutions and Real Textile Wastewater Using Bifunctional Chitin/lignin Biosorbent.” International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 99 (June 2017): 754–764. doi:10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.03.023.

Dhananasekaran, Solairaj, Rameshthangam Palanivel, and Srinivasan Pappu. “Adsorption of Methylene Blue, Bromophenol Blue, and Coomassie Brilliant Blue by α-Chitin Nanoparticles.” Journal of Advanced Research 7, no. 1 (January 2016): 113–124. doi:10.1016/j.jare.2015.03.003.

Gopi, Sreerag, Preetha Balakrishnan, Anitha Pius, and Sabu Thomas. “Chitin Nanowhisker ( ChNW )-Functionalized Electrospun PVDF Membrane for Enhanced Removal of Indigo Carmine.” Carbohydrate Polymers 165 (June 2017): 115–122. doi:10.1016/j.carbpol.2017.02.046.

Morin, Arnaud, and Alain Dufresne. “Nanocomposites of Chitin Whiskers fromRiftiaTubes and Poly(caprolactone).” Macromolecules 35, no. 6 (March 2002): 2190–2199. doi:10.1021/ma011493a.

PM V, Thomas S. "Preparation and characterization of chitin nanowhiskers and their polymer nanocomposites." Int J Polym Technol 3, no. 1 (2011): 35-44.

Pang, Jiabin, Fenglian Fu, Zecong Ding, Jianwei Lu, Na Li, and Bing Tang. “Adsorption Behaviors of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solution on Mesoporous Birnessite.” Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers 77 (August 2017): 168–176. doi:10.1016/j.jtice.2017.04.041.

Gupta, V. K., O. Moradi, I. Tyagi, S. Agarwal, H. Sadegh, R. Shahryari-Ghoshekandi, A. S. H. Makhlouf, M. Goodarzi, and A. Garshasbi. “Study on the Removal of Heavy Metal Ions from Industry Waste by Carbon Nanotubes: Effect of the Surface Modification: a Review.” Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 46, no. 2 (June 18, 2015): 93–118. doi:10.1080/10643389.2015.1061874.

Shankar, Shiv, and Jong-Whan Rhim. “Facile Approach for Large-Scale Production of Metal and Metal Oxide Nanoparticles and Preparation of Antibacterial Cotton Pads.” Carbohydrate Polymers 163 (May 2017): 137–145. doi:10.1016/j.carbpol.2017.01.059.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/esj-2019-01181


Copyright (c) 2019 Seyyed Salar Meshkat, Mojtaba Nasirnejad, Mohammad reza Bazmi, Milad Talebi