Metaverse Technology in Communication Practices: A Case Study of IT Products Retailers in the UAE

Faycal Farhi, Riadh Jeljeli, Khaled Zamoum, Yamine Boudhane, Faten Ben Lagha


Introduction: Retail companies aim to provide their customers with improved customer support and public relations services. For this purpose, metaverse technology is one of the most preferred approaches to improving customers’ buying and post-purchase experiences. Aims: This research also examined metaverse technology acceptance among the IT products and services companies in the United Arab Emirates. Methods: The researchers employed a self-proposed study model and used the structural equation modeling approach. Results: Results revealed that relative advantage significantly affects customer support and public relations. However, transparency does not affect customer service and public relations significantly, while the effect of perceived compatibility on customer support remained insignificant while public relations remained significant. Finally, the effect of public relations on metaverse technological acceptance remained insignificant. Besides, the effect of customer support on metaverse technology acceptance remained significant. Overall, the results supported the role of certain factors proposed by the diffusion of innovation theory in the context of PR and customer support, which is further accelerating the metaverse technology adoption among the IT retailers in the UAE. Conclusion: Thus, this study concludes that the role and adoption of metaverse technology not only highlight its acceptance but also address its importance in improving IT retail products and services.


Doi: 10.28991/ESJ-2023-07-03-019

Full Text: PDF


Metaverse Technology; Public Relations; United Arab Emirates; Customer Support; Perceived Compatibility.


Mozumder, M. A. I., Sheeraz, M. M., Athar, A., Aich, S., & Kim, H. C. (2022). Overview: Technology Roadmap of the Future Trend of Metaverse based on IoT, Blockchain, AI Technique, and Medical Domain Metaverse Activity. International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology, February (2022), 256–261. doi:10.23919/ICACT53585.2022.9728808.

Wang, W. X., Zhou, F., Wan, Y. L., & Ning, H. S. (2022). A survey of metaverse technology. Gongcheng Kexue Xuebao/Chinese Journal of Engineering, 44(4), 744–756. doi:10.13374/j.issn2095-9389.2022.01.15.003.

Sparkes, M. (2021). What is a metaverse? New Scientist, 251(3348), 18. doi:10.1016/s0262-4079(21)01450-0.

Almaiah, M. A., Alfaisal, R., Salloum, S. A., Hajjej, F., Shishakly, R., Lutfi, A., Alrawad, M., Al Mulhem, A., Alkhdour, T., & Al-Maroof, R. S. (2022). Measuring Institutions’ Adoption of Artificial Intelligence Applications in Online Learning Environments: Integrating the Innovation Diffusion Theory with Technology Adoption Rate. Electronics (Switzerland), 11(20). doi:10.3390/electronics11203291.

Chen, Z. (2022). Exploring the application scenarios and issues facing Metaverse technology in education. Interactive Learning Environments, 1–13. doi:10.1080/10494820.2022.2133148.

Ao, S. H., & Huang, Q. S. (2020). A systematic review on the application of dialogue in public relations to information communication technology-based platforms: Comparing English and Chinese contexts. Public Relations Review, 46(1), 101814. doi:10.1016/j.pubrev.2019.101814.

Xu, H., Li, Z., Li, Z., Zhang, X., Sun, Y., & Zhang, L. (2022). Metaverse Native Communication: A Blockchain and Spectrum Prospective. 2022 IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops (ICC Workshops), Seoul, Korea. doi:10.1109/iccworkshops53468.2022.9814538.

Bibri, S. E. (2022). The Social Shaping of the Metaverse as an Alternative to the Imaginaries of Data-Driven Smart Cities: A Study in Science, Technology, and Society. Smart Cities, 5(3), 832–874. doi:10.3390/smartcities5030043.

Brassell, J. (2022). Virtual image: Welcome to public relations in the metaverse. Beyond Games. Available online: (accessed on March 2023).

Wang, Y., Su, Z., Zhang, N., Xing, R., Liu, D., Luan, T. H., & Shen, X. (2023). A Survey on Metaverse: Fundamentals, Security, and Privacy. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 25(1), 319–352. doi:10.1109/comst.2022.3202047.

Tang, F., Chen, X., Zhao, M., & Kato, N. (2022). The Roadmap of Communication and Networking in 6G for the Metaverse. IEEE Wireless Communications, 1–15. doi:10.1109/MWC.019.2100721.

Zhou, Y., Xiao, X., Chen, G., Zhao, X., & Chen, J. (2022). Self-powered sensing technologies for human Metaverse interfacing. Joule, 6(7), 1381–1389. doi:10.1016/j.joule.2022.06.011.

Plechatá, A., Makransky, G., & Böhm, R. (2022). Can extended reality in the metaverse revolutionise health communication? NPJ Digital Medicine, 5(1). doi:10.1038/s41746-022-00682-x.

Indarta, Y., Ambiyar, A., Samala, A. D., & Watrianthos, R. (2022). Metaverse: Challenges and opportunities in education. Jurnal Basicedu, 6(3), 3351–3363. doi:10.31004/basicedu.v6i3.2615.

Almarzouqi, A., Aburayya, A., & Salloum, S. A. (2022). Prediction of User’s Intention to Use Metaverse System in Medical Education: A Hybrid SEM-ML Learning Approach. IEEE Access, 10, 43421–43434. doi:10.1109/ACCESS.2022.3169285.

Aburbeian, A. M., Owda, A. Y., & Owda, M. (2022). A Technology Acceptance Model Survey of the Metaverse Prospects. AI, 3(2), 285–302. doi:10.3390/ai3020018.

Aloqaily, M., Bouachir, O., Karray, F., Ridhawi, I. Al, & Saddik, A. El. (2022). Integrating Digital Twin and Advanced Intelligent Technologies to Realize the Metaverse. IEEE Consumer Electronics Magazine, 1–8. doi:10.1109/MCE.2022.3212570.

Hwang, G. J., & Chien, S. Y. (2022). Definition, roles, and potential research issues of the metaverse in education: An artificial intelligence perspective. Computers and Education: Artificial Intelligence, 3, 100082. doi:10.1016/j.caeai.2022.100082.

Alawaad, H. A. (2021). The role of artificial intelligence (AI) in public relations and product marketing in modern organizations. Turkish Journal of Computer and Mathematics Education (TURCOMAT), 12(14), 3180-3187.

Alvarez-Risco, A., Del-Aguila-Arcentales, S., Rosen, M. A., & Yáñez, J. A. (2022). Social Cognitive Theory to Assess the Intention to Participate in the Facebook Metaverse by Citizens in Peru during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity, 8(3), 142. doi:10.3390/joitmc8030142.

Afrashtehfar, K. I., & Abu-Fanas, A. S. H. (2022). Metaverse, Crypto, and NFTs in Dentistry. Education Sciences, 12(8), 538. doi:10.3390/educsci12080538.

Almaiah, M. A., Alfaisal, R., Salloum, S. A., Al-Otaibi, S., Shishakly, R., Lutfi, A., Alrawad, M., Mulhem, A. Al, Awad, A. B., & Al-Maroof, R. S. (2022). Integrating Teachers’ TPACK Levels and Students’ Learning Motivation, Technology Innovativeness, and Optimism in an IoT Acceptance Model. Electronics (Switzerland), 11(19), 3197. doi:10.3390/electronics11193197.

Buhalis, D., Lin, M. S., & Leung, D. (2022). Metaverse as a driver for customer experience and value co-creation: implications for hospitality and tourism management and marketing. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 35(2), 701–716. doi:10.1108/ijchm-05-2022-0631.

Zaman, U., Koo, I., Abbasi, S., Raza, S. H., & Qureshi, M. G. (2022). Meet Your Digital Twin in Space? Profiling International Expat’s Readiness for Metaverse Space Travel, Tech-Savviness, COVID-19 Travel Anxiety, and Travel Fear of Missing Out. Sustainability (Switzerland), 14(11), 6441. doi:10.3390/su14116441.

Alawadhi, M., Alhumaid, K., Almarzooqi, S., Aljasmi, S., Aburayya, A., Salloum, S. A., & Almesmari, W. (2022). Factors Affecting Medical Students’ Acceptance of the Metaverse System in Medical Training in the United Arab Emirates. South Eastern European Journal of Public Health, 19(5), 1-14. doi:10.11576/seejph-5759.

Akour, I. A., Al-Maroof, R. S., Alfaisal, R., & Salloum, S. A. (2022). A conceptual framework for determining metaverse adoption in higher institutions of gulf area: An empirical study using hybrid SEM-ANN approach. Computers and Education: Artificial Intelligence, 3, 100052. doi:10.1016/j.caeai.2022.100052.

Toraman, Y. (2022). User Acceptance of Metaverse: Insights from Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and Planned Behavior Theory (PBT). EMAJ: Emerging Markets Journal, 12(1), 67–75. doi:10.5195/emaj.2022.258.

López-Belmonte, J., Pozo-Sánchez, S., Carmona-Serrano, N., & Moreno-Guerrero, A.J. (2022). Flipped Learning and E-Learning as Training Models Focused on the Metaverse. Emerging Science Journal, 6, 188-198. doi:10.28991/ESJ-2022-SIED-013.

Kim, B., Park, E., & Cameron, G. T. (2017). Transparent communication efforts inspire confident, even greater, employee performance. Asian Journal of Public Relations, 1(1), 9-31.

Ning, H., Wang, H., Lin, Y., Wang, W., Dhelim, S., Farha, F., Ding, J., & Daneshmand, M. (2021). A Survey on Metaverse: the State-of-the-art, Technologies, Applications, and Challenges. arXiv preprint. doi:10.48550/arXiv.2111.09673.

Fathurrochman, I., Ariskawanti, E., & Santosa, S. (2019). An Analysis of Public Relations Management of IAIN CURUP Bengkulu in Improving Digital Information Systems. Jurnal At-Tarbiyat: Jurnal Pendidikan Islam, 5(2), 228–240. doi:10.37758/jat.v5i2.448.

Sasaki, M. (2018). Application of diffusion of innovation theory to educational accountability: the case of EFL education in Japan. Language Testing in Asia, 8(1), 1-16. doi:10.1186/s40468-017-0052-1.

Lu, X., & Hsiao, K. L. (2022). Effects of diffusion of innovations, spatial presence, and flow on virtual reality shopping. Frontiers in Psychology, 13. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2022.941248.

Kye, B., Han, N., Kim, E., Park, Y., & Jo, S. (2021). Educational applications of metaverse: possibilities and limitations. Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions, 18, 32. doi:10.3352/jeehp.2021.18.32.

Bibri, S. E., & Allam, Z. (2022). The Metaverse as a virtual form of data-driven smart cities: the ethics of the hyper-connectivity, datafication, algorithmization, and platformization of urban society. Computational Urban Science, 2(1), 22. doi:10.1007/s43762-022-00050-1.

Jung, S., Lee, S., Jeon, S., & Jung, H. (2021). Review of Metaverse Technology. Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Information and Commucation Sciences Conference, 341-344, The Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering, Seoul, Korea.

Amirulloh, M. F. N., & Mulqi, M. (2022). Know More Metaverse as The Technology of The Future. International Journal of Research and Applied Technology, 2(1), 174–177. doi:10.34010/injuratech.v2i1.6915.

Sartipi, F. (2020). Diffusion of Innovation Theory in the Realm of Environmental Construction. Journal of Construction Materials, 1(4). doi:10.36756/jcm.v1.4.2.

Habes, M., Elareshi, M., Youssef, E., Ali, S., & Qudah, M. (2022). Social Impact of Videos at New Media Platforms on the eLearning Acceptance during the Covid-19. Information Sciences Letters, 11(3), 913–923. doi:10.18576/isl/110322.

Pasha, S. A., Youssef, E., & Sharif, H. (2021). Role of Virtual Reality in Improving Students’ LMS Experiences: Structural Equation Modelling Based Study. 2021 International Conference of Modern Trends in Information and Communication Technology Industry (MTICTI), Sana'a, Yemen, 1-7. doi:10.1109/mticti53925.2021.9664769.

Lee, L. H., Braud, T., Zhou, P., Wang, L., Xu, D., Lin, Z., ... & Hui, P. (2021). All one needs to know about metaverse: A complete survey on technological singularity, virtual ecosystem, and research agenda. arXiv preprint, arXiv:2110.05352. doi:10.48550/arXiv.2110.05352.

Myers, J. L., Well, A. D., & Lorch, R. F. (2013). Research design and statistical analysis (3rd Ed.). Routledge, New York, United States. doi:10.4324/9780203726631.

Brock, J. K. U., & von Wangenheim, F. (2019). Demystifying Ai: What digital transformation leaders can teach you about realistic artificial intelligence. California Management Review, 61(4), 110–134. doi:10.1177/1536504219865226.

Jeljeli, R., Farhi, F., & Hamdi, M. E. (2022). The effect of consumer review on the perceived trustworthiness of online retailers: Item response theory perspective. International Journal of Data and Network Science, 6(4), 1341–1350. doi:10.5267/j.ijdns.2022.6.001.

Damerji, H., & Salimi, A. (2021). Mediating effect of use perceptions on technology readiness and adoption of artificial intelligence in accounting. Accounting Education, 30(2), 107–130. doi:10.1080/09639284.2021.1872035.

Mazouz, A., Alnaji, L., Jeljeli, R., & Al-Shdaifat, F. (2019). Innovation and entrepreneurship framework within the Middle East and North Africa region. African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development, 11(6), 699–710. doi:10.1080/20421338.2019.1573959.

Swiatek, L., & Galloway, C. (2022). Artificial intelligence and public relations. The Routledge Companion to Public Relations, 352–362, Routledge, London, United Kingdom. doi:10.4324/9781003131700-32.

Panda, G., Upadhyay, A. K., & Khandelwal, K. (2019). Artificial Intelligence: A Strategic Disruption in Public Relations. Journal of Creative Communications, 14(3), 196–213. doi:10.1177/0973258619866585.

Taherdoost, H. (2018). Sampling Methods in Research Methodology; How to Choose a Sampling Technique for Research. International Journal of Academic Research in Management, 2(5), 18-27. doi:10.2139/ssrn.3205035.

Sharma, G. (2017). Pros and cons of different sampling techniques. International Journal of Applied Research, 3(7), 749-752.

Ponto, J. (2015). Understanding and Evaluating Survey Research. Journal of the Advanced Practitioner in Oncology, 6(2):168-171. doi:10.6004/jadpro.2015.6.2.9.

Setyono, J. C., Suryawidjaja, W. S., & Girsang, A. S. (2022). Social Network Analysis of Cryptocurrency using Business Intelligence Dashboard. HighTech and Innovation Journal, 3(2), 220-229. doi:10.28991/HIJ-2022-03-02-09.

Carlson, K. D., & Herdman, A. O. (2010). Understanding the Impact of Convergent Validity on Research Results. Organizational Research Methods, 15(1), 17–32. doi:10.1177/1094428110392383.

Cheung, G. W., & Wang, C. (2017). Current Approaches for Assessing Convergent and Discriminant Validity with SEM: Issues and Solutions. Academy of Management Proceedings, 2017(1), 12706. doi:10.5465/ambpp.2017.12706abstract.

Shiu, E., Pervan, S. J., Bove, L. L., & Beatty, S. E. (2011). Reflections on discriminant validity: Reexamining the Bove et al. (2009) findings. Journal of Business Research, 64(5), 497–500. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2010.04.004.

Jeljeli, R., Farhi, F., & Hamdi, M. E. (2022). The mediating role of gender in social media shopping acceptance: from the WOM perspective. Heliyon, 8(10), e11065. doi:10.1016/j.heliyon.2022.e11065.

Ermine, W., Sinclair, R., & Jeffery, B. (2004). The ethics of research involving Indigenous peoples. Saskatoon: Indigenous Peoples' Health Research Centre, IPHRC, Canada.

Mérigot, B., Durbec, J. P., & Gaertner, J. C. (2010). On goodness-of-fit measure for dendrogram-based analyses. Ecology, 91(6), 1850–1859. doi:10.1890/09-1387.1.

Van Vuuren, L. J. (2010). Industrial Psychology: Goodness of fit? Fit for goodness? SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 36(2), 16. doi:10.4102/sajip.v36i2.939.

Piepho, H. P. (2019). A coefficient of determination (R2) for generalized linear mixed models. Biometrical Journal, 61(4), 860–872. doi:10.1002/bimj.201800270.

Bagozzi, R. P., & Yi, Y. (2012). Specification, evaluation, and interpretation of structural equation models. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 40(1), 8–34. doi:10.1007/s11747-011-0278-x.

Yang, F., Ren, L., & Gu, C. (2022). A study of college students’ intention to use metaverse technology for basketball learning based on UTAUT2. Heliyon, 8(9), 10562. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2022.e10562.

Shen, B., Tan, W., Guo, J., Zhao, L., & Qin, P. (2021). How to promote user purchase in metaverse? A systematic literature review on consumer behavior research and virtual commerce application design. Applied Sciences (Switzerland), 11(23), 11087. doi:10.3390/app112311087.

Jhuang, Y.-C., Chiu, Y. H., Lee, H.-J., Lee, Y. T., Lin, G.-Y., Wu, N.-H., & Kuo, P.-Y. P. (2022). Exploring the Effect of Study with Me on Parasocial Interaction and Learning Productivity: Lessons Learned in a Field Study. HCI International 2022 Posters, 43–49, Springer, Cham, Switzerland. doi:10.1007/978-3-031-06391-6_6.

Wang, J. J., Li, J. J., & Chang, J. (2016). Product co-development in an emerging market: The role of buyer-supplier compatibility and institutional environment. Journal of Operations Management, 46, 69–83. doi:10.1016/j.jom.2016.07.002.

Jami, A. A., & Walsh, P. R. (2016). Wind power deployment: The role of public participation in the decision-making process in Ontario, Canada. Sustainability (Switzerland), 8(8), 713. doi:10.3390/su8080713.

Gadekallu, T.R., Huynh-The, T., Wang, W., Yenduri, G., Ranaweera, P., Pham, Q.V., da Costa, D.B. & Liyanage, M. (2022). Blockchain for the metaverse: A review. arXiv preprint. doi:10.48550/arXiv.2203.09738.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/ESJ-2023-07-03-019


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 faycal farhi