Human Rights amongst COVID-19: CAT Convention

Shubham Pathak, Aishwarya Chaturvedi, Siwarut Laikram


Thailand’s strength to uphold human rights remains crucial in developing a positive international standard. However, amid the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been an extensive research debate to ensure human rights’ adequateness and protective framework. The objective of this research is to enrich our understanding of the legal frameworks related to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), the Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment of 1984 (CAT), and the Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand B.E. 2560 (2017), which are significant legal instruments that impact the international and national population. This study adopted a comprehensive SWOT-PESTEL methodology, which involves internal variable assessment through Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threats (SWOT) and external variables, including Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Environment, and Legal (PESTEL). Case studies and the legal positivism approach are integrated to facilitate a comprehensive understanding of international and national legal frameworks. The research findings emphasize the need for Thailand to revise the National Human Rights Commission and relevant laws. Therefore, ensure the conduct of responsible investigations and the creation of a specialized court for protecting human rights, considering the limited availability of experts, specialists, judges, lawyers, prosecutors, researchers, academics, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs).


Doi: 10.28991/ESJ-2023-07-06-012

Full Text: PDF


Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR); International Law; Post-COVID-19; Sustainable Management; Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel; Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT).


OHCHR. (1966). International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, United Nations, United States. Available online: (accessed on November 2023).

Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. (1984). Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, United Nations, New York, United States. Available online: (accessed on November 2023).

Pathak, S., & Ahmad, M. M. (2018). Role of government in flood disaster recovery for SMEs in Pathumthani province, Thailand. Natural Hazards, 93(2), 957–966. doi:10.1007/s11069-018-3335-7.

OHCHR-CRC. (1989). Convention on the Rights of the Child. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, United Nations, New York, United States. Available online: (accessed on November 2023).

OHCHR. (1979). Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, United Nations General Assembly, New York, United States. Available online: (accessed on November 2023).

Satesna, D. P. (2022). Legal Personality of ASEAN as the Subject of International Law: Contemporary Developments. International Law Discourse in Southeast Asia, 1(1), 65–78. doi:10.15294/ildisea.v1i1.56871.

Phakphongsiri, P. (2021). Legal Measures on the Collection of Scientific Evidence under the Criminal Procedure Code. Master Thesis, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice Subject Group, Faculty of Law, Sripatum University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Kamonnitham, P., & Suthibodee, S. (2016). Legislative Measures to Support Conventions against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. Ph.D. in Social Sciences Journal, 6(2), 150–175.

Office of the Council of State. (2007). Translation krisdika. Office of the Council of State, Bangkok, Thailand. Available online: (accessed on May 2023).

International Commission of Jurists. (2023). Criminal Procedure Code of Thailand. Retrieved from Advocates for Justice and Human Rights: Available online: (accessed on May 2023).

Turner, B. S. (1993). Outline of a Theory of Human Rights. Sociology, 27(3), 489–512. doi:10.1177/0038038593027003009.

Ife, J., Soldatić, K., & Briskman, L. (2022). Human rights and social work. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom. doi:10.1017/9781108903868.

Fransiska, A. (2022). Weighing of the criminalization of cannabis in Indonesia narcotic law with international human rights law perspective. International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science, 11(6), 591–599. doi:10.20525/ijrbs.v11i6.1972.

Culloty, E., & Suiter, J. (2021). Disinformation and Manipulation in Digital Media. Routledge, London, United Kingdom. doi:10.4324/9781003054252.

Royal Thai Police. (2023, May 14). Thai Police Order No. 855/ 2548 (2005). Royal Thai Police, Bangkok, Thailand. Available online: (accessed on May 2023).

Somwong, P. (2017). Expanding the Mandates of National Human Rights Institutions to Protect Human Rights Defenders: The Cases of Indonesia and Thailand. 2nd International Conference, National Human Rights Institution in Southeast Asia, 13-14 July, 2017, Bangkok, Thailand.

Sieckmann, J. (2018). Proportionality as a Universal Human Rights Principle. Proportionality in Law. Springer, Cham, Switzerland. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-89647-2_1.

Balkin, J. M. (2017). Free Speech in the Algorithmic Society: Big Data, Private Governance, and New School Speech Regulation. SSRN Electronic Journal, 51, 1149. doi:10.2139/ssrn.3038939.

Langer, R. L. (2011). Defining rights and wrongs: bureaucracy, human rights, and public accountability. UBC Press, Vancouver, Canada.

Amar, F., & Afroukh, J. (2023). Advanced Integrated Diagnostic Model; Swot/Pestel, 7s Combined. Revue Internationale des Sciences de Gestion, 6(1), 428-453. (In French).

Menshawy, I. S. A. H. (2019). Unilateral acts and peremptory norms (Jus Cogens) in the international law commission’s work. Review of Economics and Political Science, 4(3), 182–196. doi:10.1108/REPS-11-2018-0030.

Jovanović, M., & Krstić, I. (2020). Human Rights and the Constitutionalization of International Law. Human Rights in 21st Century. Eleven International Publishing, Netherlands, 13-30.

Gerards, J. (2019). General principles of the European convention on human rights. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom. doi:10.1017/9781108652926.

European Union Law. (2016). Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 April 2016 on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data, and repealing Directive 95/46/EC (General Data Protection Regulation) (Text with EEA relevance). Official Journal of the European Union, Brussels, Belgium. Available online: (accessed on November 2023).

Buana, M. S. (2020). A Realistic Perspective to Transitional Justice: A Study of Its Impediments in Indonesia. Journal of Southeast Asian Human Rights, 4(2), 406–426. doi:10.19184/jseahr.v4i2.8395.

Thailandlawonline. (2023). Criminal Code of Thailand. Thailandlawonline, Bangkok, Thailand. Available online: (accessed on May 2023).

Chitov, A. (2021). The concepts of truth and fairness in Thai criminal procedure. New Criminal Law Review, 24(1), 59–89. doi:10.1525/nclr.2021.24.1.59.

Schlesinger, R. B. (1976). Comparative criminal procedure: A plea for utilizing foreign experience. Buffalo Law Review, 26, 361.

HRW. (2023). Human Rights Report 2023. Human Rights Watch, New York, United States. Available online: (accessed on May 2023).

Austin, J. (1880). Lectures on jurisprudence, or, the philosophy of positive law. John Murray, London, United Kingdom.

Rigaux, F. (1998). Hans Kelsen on International Law. European Journal of International Law, 9(2), 325–343. doi:10.1093/ejil/9.2.325.

Miller, F. O. (2023). Minobe Tatsukichi: interpreter of constitutionalism in Japan. University of California Press, Berkeley, United States. doi:10.2307/jj.2430597.

Starke, J. G. (1936). Monism and dualism in the theory of international law. British Yearbook of International Law, 17, 66.

Ago, R. (1957). Positive Law and International Law. American Journal of International Law, 51(4), 691–733. doi:10.2307/2195350.

Borchers, P. J. (2023). Legal Philosophy for Lawyers in the Age of a Political Supreme Court. SSRN Electronic Journal, 90(4), 89. doi:10.2139/ssrn.4305509.

Keating, V. C. (2016). The anti-torture norm and cooperation in the CIA black site programme. International Journal of Human Rights, 20(7), 935–955. doi:10.1080/13642987.2016.1192534.

OHCHR (1990). International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, United Nations, New York, United States. Available online: (accessed on November 2023).

Magaloni, B., & Rodriguez, L. (2020). Institutionalized Police Brutality: Torture, the Militarization of Security, and the Reform of Inquisitorial Criminal Justice in Mexico. American Political Science Review, 114(4), 1013–1034. doi:10.1017/S0003055420000520.

Kittiyanupong, T. (2023). The Collision of Values in Thai Constitutional Law. In Europe and Asia as a Legal Area for Fundamental Rights, 115–128. Springer Nature Singapore. doi:10.1007/978-981-19-7542-4_9.

Trade. (2022). Personal Data Protection Act. International Trade Administration, United States. Available online: (accessed on November 2023).

Finkelman, P. (2023). The Bill of Rights in Historical and International Perspective: How An 18th Century Document Illuminates Liberty in the 21stCentury. Ohio Northern University Law Review, 46(2), 3.

Ganuza, N., & Salö, L. (2023). Boundary-work and social closure in academic recruitment: Insights from the transdisciplinary subject area Swedish as a Second Language. Research Evaluation, 32(2), 515–525. doi:10.1093/reseval/rvad015.

Quillian, L., & Lee, J. J. (2023). Trends in racial and ethnic discrimination in hiring in six Western countries. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 120(6). doi:10.1073/pnas.2212875120.

Rogerson, M. (2023). Business and Human Rights in Russia: Emerging or Merging? Business and Human Rights Journal, 1–26. doi:10.1017/bhj.2022.29.

Maki, J. M. (1965). Minobe Tatsukichi: Interpreter of Constitutionalism in Japan, by Frank O. Miller. Washington Law Review, 40(3), 661.

Newman, P. A., Reid, L., Tepjan, S., & Akkakanjanasupar, P. (2021). LGBT+ inclusion and human rights in Thailand: a scoping review of the literature. BMC Public Health, 21(1), 1816. doi:10.1186/s12889-021-11798-2.

Esteve, A. (2017). The business of personal data: Google, Facebook, and privacy issues in the EU and the USA. International Data Privacy Law, 7(1), 36–47. doi:10.1093/idpl/ipw026.

Feinberg, G. (2023). Modernization, Socio-cultural Change, and the Harnessing of Human Rights Covenants in Defending against Modernization. Journal of Multidisciplinary Research (1947-2900), 15(1), 9-21.

Shah, S. S., & Mufeed, S. A. (2023). Urgency and relevance of feminist social work to curb domestic violence amid COVID-19. International Social Work, 66(1), 80–92. doi:10.1177/00208728211066833.

Spadaro, A. (2020). COVID-19: Testing the limits of human rights. European Journal of Risk Regulation, 11(2), 317-325. doi:10.1017/err.2020.27.

Ha, H., & Coghill, K. (2008). E-Government in Singapore - A SWOT and PEST Analysis. Asia-Pacific Social Science Review, 6(2), 103-133. doi:10.3860/apssr.v6i2.62.

Zhao, Y., Mei, X., & Guo, J. (2023). Influence of Sustainable Environment Based on a SWOT-PEST Model on Sports Tourism Service Integration Development. Sustainability, 15(2), 1632. doi:10.3390/su15021632.

Gostin, L. O., Friedman, E. A., Hossain, S., Mukherjee, J., Zia-Zarifi, S., Clinton, C., Rugege, U., Buss, P., Were, M., & Dhai, A. (2023). Human rights and the COVID-19 pandemic: a retrospective and prospective analysis. The Lancet, 401(10371), 154–168. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(22)01278-8.

Plummer, S., Ittner, T., Monreal, A., Sandelson, J., & Western, B. (2023). Life during COVID for Court-Involved People. RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences, 9(3), 232–251. doi:10.7758/rsf.2023.9.3.10.

Zimmermann, N. (2023). Beyond Crisis: Understandings of Vulnerability and Its Consequences in Relation to Intimate Partner Violence. Human Rights Review, 24(2), 193–216. doi:10.1007/s12142-023-00687-3.

Vasilopoulos, P., Mcavay, H., Brouard, S., & Foucault, M. (2023). Emotions, governmental trust and support for the restriction of civil liberties during the covid-19 pandemic. European Journal of Political Research, 62(2), 422–442. doi:10.1111/1475-6765.12513.

Lauri, C., Shimpo, F., & Sokołowski, M. M. (2023). Artificial intelligence and robotics on the frontlines of the pandemic response: the regulatory models for technology adoption and the development of resilient organisations in smart cities. Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing, 1–2. doi:10.1007/s12652-023-04556-2.

Vantrees, A. (2023). Inaccessible justice: The violation of Article 13 of the CRPD and the ICC’s role in filling the accountability gap. International Review of the Red Cross, 105(922), 542–565. doi:10.1017/S1816383122000728.

Albano, G. D., Guadagnino, D., Midiri, M., La Spina, C., Tullio, V., Argo, A., & Zerbo, S. (2023). Torture and Maltreatment in Prison: A Medico-Legal Perspective. Healthcare (Switzerland), 11(4), 576. doi:10.3390/healthcare11040576.

Thapa, V., Pathak, S., & Pathak, N. (2021). Psychosocial recovery of earthquake victims: A case study of 2015 Gorkha earthquake. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 62, 102416. doi:10.1016/j.ijdrr.2021.102416.

Laikram, S., & Pathak, S. (2022). Essentialities of ratifying CED in Thailand: Human Rights amid Covid-19 Pandemic. Emerging Science Journal, 6, 57–70. doi:10.28991/esj-2022-sper-05.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/ESJ-2023-07-06-012


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Shubham Pathak, Aishwarya Chaturvedi, Siwarut Laikram