The Impact of Graduates' Skills on Facing Challenges in the Labor Market

Arbëresha Behluli, Fidan Qerimi, Fellanze Pula, Lulzim Shabani


Objectives: This study aims to measure the impact of graduate skills on job challenges in the labor market in Kosovo and also to measure the relationship between graduates' challenges at work and demographic characteristics (age, gender, educational level, and training). Methods: Quantitative methods were used to conduct this research, using a structured questionnaire. The study population was graduate students in the last five years in Kosovo, and the sample included 400 students according to Slovin's formula. Findings: Based on the research results, the acquired skills were inversely proportional to the challenges of the graduates in the labor market. According to the multiple linear regression, it turned out that the students' skills negatively affected their challenges. Also, the T-test and ANOVA showed significant results concerning gender, age, and training. Novelty/improvement: Through this research, higher education institutions receive feedback on what needs more attention to better prepare students to face the job market. Hence, the research will contribute to improving the quality of teaching and reducing the challenges graduates face in the labor market.


Doi: 10.28991/ESJ-2022-06-02-014

Full Text: PDF


Graduates’ Skills; Student Challenges; Labor Market; Demographic Characteristics.


Choi, S. (2020). The Impact of Education Levels and Paths on Labor Market Outcomes in South Korea: Focusing on Vocational High School Graduates. SSRN Electronic Journal, 4(1). doi:10.2139/ssrn.3621851.

Taubman, P. J., & Wales, T. (1974). Higher education and earnings: College as an investment and screening device. NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Massachusetts, United States.

CEDEFOP. (2013). Labour market outcomes of vocational education in Europe: Evidence from the European Union labour force survey. In European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (CEDEFOP), Issue 32, 1–84. Available online: (accessed on December 2021).

Person, A. E., & Rosenbaum, J. E. (2006). Educational outcomes of labor-market linking and job placement for students at public and private 2-year colleges. Economics of Education Review, 25(4), 412–429. doi:10.1016/j.econedurev.2005.09.005.

Bowles, S., & Gintis, H. (2002). Schooling in capitalist America revisited. In Sociology of Education (1st edition). Taylor & Francis Group, Oxfordshire United Kingdom. doi:10.2307/3090251.

Orkodashvili, M. (2009). Investment in human capital: vocational vs. academic education. Academic Education, 1-18. doi: 10.2139/ssrn.1442602.

Donald, W. E., Ashleigh, M. J., & Baruch, Y. (2018). Students’ perceptions of education and employability. Career Development International, 23(5), 513–540. doi:10.1108/cdi-09-2017-0171.

Abas-mastura, M., A.Imam, O., & Shuki Osman. (2013). Employability skills and task performance of employers in Govt. sector. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 3(4), 150–162.

Abbasi, F. K., Ali, A., & Bibi, N. (2018). Analysis of skill gap for business graduates: managerial perspective from banking industry. Education and Training, 60(4), 354–367. doi:10.1108/ET-08-2017-0120.

Bhanugopan, R., & Fish, A. (2009). Achieving graduate employability through consensus in the south pacific island nation. Education and Training, 51(2), 108–123. doi:10.1108/00400910910941273.

Poon, J. (2014). Do real estate courses sufficiently develop graduates’ employability skills? Perspectives from multiple stakeholders. Education and Training, 56(6), 562–581. doi:10.1108/ET-06-2013-0074.

McClelland, D. C. (1973). Testing for competence rather than for “intelligence”. The American Psychologist, 28(1), 1–14. doi:10.1037/h0034092.

Pang, E., Wong, M., Leung, C. H., & Coombes, J. (2019). Competencies for fresh graduates’ success at work: Perspectives of employers. Industry and Higher Education, 33(1), 55–65. doi:10.1177/0950422218792333.

O.E.C.D. (2022). Youth unemployment rate. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Geneva, Switzerland. Available online: (accessed on January 2021).

Deaconu, A., Osoian, C., Zaharie, M., & Achim, S. A. (2014). Competencies in higher education system: An empirical analysis of employers’ perceptions. Amfiteatru Economic, 16(37), 857–873.

Burke, C., Scurry, T., Blenkinsopp, J., & Graley, K. (2017). Critical Perspectives on Graduate Employability. In Graduate Employability in Context, 87–107. Palgrave Macmillan. doi:10.1057/978-1-137-57168-7_4.

Nguyen, N. D., & Ba Ngoc, N. (2017). Enhancing graduate workreadiness in Vietnam. In Transitions from Education to Work: Workforce Ready Challenges in the Asia Pacific. 69–83. Springer Nature, Singapore doi:10.4324/9781315533971.

Tran, T. T. (2013). Limitation on the development of skills in higher education in Vietnam. Higher Education, 65(5), 631–644. doi:10.1007/s10734-012-9567-7.

Hayes, J. (2002). Interpersonal skills at work. Routledge, London, United Kingdom. doi: 10.4324/9780203465783

Hartford D., Hooper S.R. (2013). Organizational Skills. In: Volkmar F.R. (eds) Encyclopedia of Autism Spectrum Disorders. Springer, New York, United States. doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-1698-3_935.

Mayon-White, B. (2014). Study Schedules and Time Management. In Study Skills for Managers (Vol. 9781446280584, pp. 14–26). SAGE Publications Ltd. doi:10.4135/9781446280584.n2.

Avery, C., Walker, M., & Murphy, E. (2001). Teamwork is an Individual Skill: getting your work done when sharing responsibility (1st ed.). Berret-Koehler Publishers, Inc. Oakland, CA, United States. Available online: (accessed on December 2021).

Mohajan, H. K. (2016). Knowledge is an Essential Element at Present World. International Journal of Publication and Social Studies, 1(1), 31–53. doi:10.18488/journal.135/2016.1.1/

Mehmeti, S., Boshtrakaj, L., & Mehmeti, F. (2019). MID-TERM EVALUATION: Implementation of Kosovo Education Strategic Plan. “Kosovo Education and Employment Network, 1–212. Available online: (accessed on December 2021).

Rrumbullaku, O. (2019). Research for youth - Kosovo 2018/19. Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung Kosovo. Available online: (accessed on December 2021).

ASKDATA. (2022). Kosovo Agency of Statistics. Available online: (accessed on December 2021).

Kastrati, A., & Navakazi, V. (2021). Assessment - Population of Kosovo. Assessment - Population of Kosovo, 1–14.

Indeksadmonline. (2021). Unemployment in Kosovo, higher than statistics show. Portali Indeksonline. Available online: (accessed on December 2021).

Hapçiu, V., & Osmani, V. (2019). Education and the Labor Market in Kosovo and the European Union. American Chamber of Commerce in Kosovo, Pristina, Kosovo, 1-24.

European Commission. (2019). Directorate-General for Economic and Financial Affairs, Progress towards Meeting the Economic Criteria for EU Accession - The EU Commission’s 2019 Assessments. Publications Office of the European Union.

Pitan, O. S. (2016). Towards Enhancing University Graduate Employability in Nigeria. Journal of Sociology and Social Anthropology, 07(01), 1–11,. doi:10.31901/24566764.2016/07.01.01.

O.E.C.D. (2016). Skills Matter: Further Results from the Survey of Adult Skills, Tables of results. In Skills Matter, 153–155. OECD Publishing. doi:10.1787/9789264258051-9-en.

di Gropello, E., Kruse, A., & Tandon, P. (2011). Skills for the Labor Market in Indonesia. In Skills for the Labor Market in Indonesia. World Bank. doi:10.1596/978-0-8213-8614-9.

Woods, D. (2008). The impact of VET on transition to work for young people in Australia. Education and Training, 50(6), 465–473. doi:10.1108/00400910810901791.

Gracia, L. (2009). Employability and higher education: contextualising female students’ workplace experiences to enhance understanding of employability development. Journal of Education and Work, 22(4), 301–318. doi:10.1080/13639080903290454.

Boahin, P., & Hofman, A. (2013). A disciplinary perspective of competency-based training on the acquisition of employability skills. Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 65(3), 385–401. doi:10.1080/13636820.2013.834954.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/ESJ-2022-06-02-014


Copyright (c) 2022 Arbëresha Behluli, Fidan Qerimi, Fellanze Pula, Lulzim Shabani