Flipping the Undergraduate Classroom to Develop Student Analytical Thinking Skills

Nattawut Phurikultong, Thiyaporn Kantathanawat


In Thailand, analytical thinking skills (ATS) have been identified as an essential element in the development of a 21st-century workforce. Moreover, due to the Covid-19 pandemic and the concern for student health and safety, the Thai Ministry of Education has stated that online education will become part of the New Normal in education. Therefore, it has become imperative that the most effective methods and mechanisms be found for online teaching in Thailand. Therefore, the authors investigated which factors increase Thai student ATS by flipping the classroom environment and using digital storytelling and inquiry-based learning (IBL). Therefore, this research aims to develop and evaluate the LIFD ATS instruction model to study the proposed effects of the ATS instruction model. A mixed research methodology was employed. The mean, standard deviation, and t-test were used to analyze the data. From the qualitative review, an initial learning model was developed and subsequently examined by a panel of eight education experts. After that, 40 students became the study's experimental group for the revised model. The results showed that the results of the expert assessment of the learning environment model using a flipped classroom combined with IBL and digital storytelling to promote ATS and academic achievement had appropriateness at the highest level. The evaluation of the student results using the ATS model identified four significant results. These were: 1) Post-test after the student's use of the ATS model determined their ATS abilities were higher than before the class. 2) Student learning achievement, innovation, and ICT skills increased as an outcome of the ATS model’s use. 3) The comparison of academic achievement after study of the students who studied with the format was 83.33%, higher than the specified 80% criteria and previously established assumptions. 4) The evaluation results of the model’s effectiveness determined that the learning effectiveness index (EI) of the learners was 0.6666 and the EI of the ATS was 0.6966, which was higher than 0.50, thus meeting the specified criteria. The study contributes to the knowledge concerning student ATS and these skills’ importance to a 21st century knowledge worker.


Doi: 10.28991/ESJ-2022-06-04-06

Full Text: PDF


Digital Storytelling; Higher Education; Inquiry-Based Learning; Learning Environment; Thailand.


Changwong, K., Sukkamart, A., & Sisan, B. (2018). Critical thinking skill development: Analysis of a new learning management model for Thai high schools. Journal of International Studies, 11(2), 37–48. doi:10.14254/2071-8330.2018/11-2/3.

Kenan Foundation Asia. (2017). Reforming Thailand’s education towards 4.0. Available online: https://www.kenan-asia.org/reforming-thailands-education-towards-4-0/ (accessed on January 2022).

Yulina, I. K., Permanasari, A., Hernani, H., & Setiawan, W. (2019). Analytical thinking skill profile and perception of pre service chemistry teachers in analytical chemistry learning. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1157(4), 042046. doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1157/4/042046.

Elder, L. & Paul, R. (2016). The thinker's guide to analytic thinking: How to take thinking apart and what to look for when you do (2nd Ed.). The Foundation for Critical Thinking, Santa Barbara, United States.

Art-In, S., & Tang, K. N. (2017). Development of analytical thinking skills among Thai university students. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 10, 862-869.

Sulaiman, W. S. W., Rahman, W. R. A., & Dzulkifli, M. A. (2008). Relationship between Critical Thinking Dispositions, Perceptions towards Teacher, Learning Approaches and Critical Thinking Skills among University Students. The Journal of Behavioral Science, 3(1), 122-133.

Phimphisan P., Chanthachum N., & Chanprathuk A. (2020). The Development of Learning Activities to Promote Critical Thinking Skills using Marzano’s Learning Management Technique for Six Grade Students. Academic Journal of Mahamakut Buddhist University Roi Et Campus, 9(2), 519–530.

Anggraini, N. P., Budiyono, & Pratiwi, H. (2019). Analysis of higher order thinking skills students at junior high school in Surakarta. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1211, 012077. doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1211/1/012077.

Kwangmuang, P., Jarutkamolpong, S., Sangboonraung, W., & Daungtod, S. (2021). The development of learning innovation to enhance higher order thinking skills for students in Thailand junior high schools. Heliyon, 7(6), e07309. doi:10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e07309.

Ahmad, S., Prahmana, R. C. I., Kenedi, A. K., Helsa, Y., Arianil, Y., & Zainil, M. (2018). The instruments of higher order thinking skills. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 943(1). doi:10.1088/1742-6596/943/1/012053.

Ministry of Education. (2015). The National Education Act 1999, and the Amendment Version (2002) and Version 3 (2010). Available online: http://www.moe.go.th/ (accessed on May 2022).

Rujivanarom, P. (2016). School system’s failure to teach logical thinking linked to low PISA scores. The Nation. Available online: https://www.nationthailand.com/in-focus/30302058 (accessed on January 2022)

World Bank. (2018). PISA 2018: Programme for International Student Assessment-THAILAND Country Report.

Ploysangwal, W. (2018). An assessment of critical thinking skills of Thai undergraduate students in private Thai Universities in Bangkok through an analytical and critical reading test. University of the Thai Chamber of Commerce Journal Humanities and Social Sciences, 38(3), 75-91.

Asanok, M., & Chookhampaeng, C. (2016). Coaching and Mentoring Model Based on Teachers' Professional Development for Enhancing Their Teaching Competency in Schools (Thailand) Using Video Tape. Educational Research and Reviews, 11(4), 134-140. doi:10.5897/err2015.2357.

UNESCO Bangkok Office. (2020). Education Minister Nataphol Teepsuwan on Covid-19 strategy in Thailand. Available online: https://bangkok.unesco.org/content/education-minister-nataphol-teepsuwan-covid-19-strategy-thailand (accessed on January 2022).

Maneerat, P., Malaivongs, K., & Khlaisang, J. (2015). The Comparison of Thai Qualification Framework for Higher Education and Capability Maturity Model Integration for Service. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 182, 225–231. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.04.759.

Hua, S., & Ren, Z. (2020). “Online + Offline” Course Teaching Based on Case Teaching Method: A Case Study of Entrepreneurship Education Course. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (iJET), 15(10), 69. doi:10.3991/ijet.v15i10.13999.

Yalagi, P. S., Dixit, R. K., & Nirgude, M. A. (2021). Effective use of online Teaching-Learning Platform and MOOC for Virtual Learning. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1854(1), 012019. doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1854/1/012019.

Srikan, P., Pimdee, P., Leekitchwatana, P., & Narabin, A. (2021). A Problem-Based Learning (PBL) and Teaching Model using a Cloud-Based Constructivist Learning Environment to Enhance Thai Undergraduate Creative Thinking and Digital Media Skills. International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies, 15(22), 68–83. doi:10.3991/IJIM.V15I22.24963.

Wannapiroon, N., & Pimdee, P. (2022). Thai undergraduate science, technology, engineering, arts, and math (STEAM) creative thinking and innovation skill development: a conceptual model using a digital virtual classroom learning environment. Education and Information Technologies, 1-28. doi:10.1007/s10639-021-10849-w.

Hrast, Š, & Savec, V. F. (2018). ICT-supported inquiry-based learning. World Transactions on Engineering and Technology Education, 16(4), 398-403.

Bakhshialiabad, H., Bakhshi, M., & Hassanshahi, G. (2015). Students’ perceptions of the academic learning environment in seven medical sciences courses based on dreem. Advances in Medical Education and Practice, 6, 195–203. doi:10.2147/AMEP.S60570.

Eppard, J., & Rochdi, A. (2017). A framework for flipped learning. International Association for Development of the Information Society, Paper presented at the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on Mobile Learning, 13th, Budapest, Hungary, April 10-12, 2017.

Friend, B., Patrick, S., Schneider, C., & Vander Ark, T. (2017). What's Possible with Personalized Learning? An Overview of Personalized Learning for Schools, Families & Communities. iNACOL, Vienna, Austria.

Costa-Mendes, R., Cruz-Jesus, F., Oliveira, T., & Castelli, M. (2021). Machine Learning Bias in Predicting High School Grades: A Knowledge Perspective. Emerging Science Journal, 5(5), 576–597. doi:10.28991/esj-2021-01298.

Zainuddin, Z., Hermawan, H. D., Nuraini, F., Prayitno, S. M., & Probowasito, T. (2019). Flipping the classroom with a LMS: Designing a technologybased learning model. Journal of Education and Learning (EduLearn), 13(3), 309–317. doi:10.11591/edulearn.v13i3.12886.

Bergmann, J., & Sams, A. (2012). Flip your classroom: Reach every student in every class every day. International Society for Technology in Education, Washington, United States.

Siripongdee, K., Tuntiwongwanich, S., & Pimdee, P. (2021). Blended Learning Model with IoT-based by Smartphone. International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies, 15(11), 166–182. doi:10.3991/ijim.v15i11.22441.

Shen, X., & Liu, J. (2022). Analysis of Factors Affecting User Willingness to Use Virtual Online Education Platforms. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 17(1), 74–89. doi:10.3991/ijet.v17i01.28713.

Glowa, L., & Goodell, J. (2016). Student-Centered Learning: Functional Requirements for Integrated Systems to Optimize Learning. International Association for K-12 Online Learning, Vienna, Austria.

Abdullah, M. Y., Hussin, S., & Ismail, K. (2019). Implementation of flipped classroom model and its effectiveness on English speaking performance. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 14(9), 130–147. doi:10.3991/IJET.V14I09.10348.

Bergmann, J., & Samms, A. (2008). Remixing chemistry class: Two colorado teachers make vodcasts of their lectures to free up class time for hands-on activities. Learning & Leading with Technology, 36(4), 22–27.

Gilboy, M. B., Heinerichs, S., & Pazzaglia, G. (2015). Enhancing student engagement using the flipped classroom. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 47(1), 109–114. doi:10.1016/j.jneb.2014.08.008.

Mason, G. S., Shuman, T. R., & Cook, K. E. (2013). Comparing the effectiveness of an inverted classroom to a traditional classroom in an upper-division engineering course. IEEE Transactions on Education, 56(4), 430–435. doi:10.1109/TE.2013.2249066.

Wang, T. (2017). Overcoming barriers to ‘flip’: building teacher’s capacity for the adoption of flipped classroom in Hong Kong secondary schools. Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning, 12(1), 6. doi:10.1186/s41039-017-0047-7.

DeLozier, S. J., & Rhodes, M. G. (2017). Flipped Classrooms: a Review of Key Ideas and Recommendations for Practice. Educational Psychology Review, 29(1), 141–151. doi:10.1007/s10648-015-9356-9.

Aprianto, E., Purwati, O., & Anam, S. (2020). Multimedia-Assisted Learning in a Flipped Classroom: A Case Study of Autonomous Learning on EFL University Students. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 15(24), 114–127. doi:10.3991/ijet.v15i24.14017.

McGrath, D., Groessler, A., Fink, E., Reidsema, C., & Kavanagh, L. (2017). Technology in the Flipped Classroom. The Flipped Classroom, 37–56. doi:10.1007/978-981-10-3413-8_3.

Wong, G. K.-W., & Yang, M. (2017). Using ICT to Facilitate Instant and Asynchronous Feedback for Students’ Learning Engagement and Improvements. Emerging Practices in Scholarship of Learning and Teaching in a Digital Era, 289–309. doi:10.1007/978-981-10-3344-5_18.

Papadopoulou, S., & Vlachos, K. (2014). Using digital storytelling to develop foundational and new literacies. Research Papers in Language Teaching and Learning, 5(1), 235–258. https://tinyurl.com/y46wst3u

Chan, C., & Sage, M. (2021). A narrative review of digital storytelling for social work practice. Journal of Social Work Practice, 35(1), 63–77. doi:10.1080/02650533.2019.1692804.

Robin, B. R. (2008). Digital storytelling: A powerful technology tool for the 21st century classroom. Theory into Practice, 47(3), 220–228. doi:10.1080/00405840802153916.

Robin, B. R. (2008). Digital Storytelling: A Powerful Technology Tool for the 21st Century Classroom. Theory Into Practice, 47(3), 220–228. doi:10.1080/00405840802153916

Hussain, H., & Shiratuddin, N. (2016). A digital storytelling process guide for designers. Journal of Telecommunication, Electronic and Computer Engineering, 8(8), 13–17. https://tinyurl.com/y5zoj2jd

Ohler, J. B. (2013). Digital storytelling in the classroom: new media pathways to literacy, learning, and creativity (2nd Ed.). Crowin Press, Thousand Oaks, United States. doi:10.4135/9781452277479.

Sarica, H. Ç., & Usluel, Y. K. (2016). The effect of digital storytelling on visual memory and writing skills. Computers and Education, 94, 298–309. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2015.11.016.

Yang, Y. T. C., & Wu, W. C. I. (2012). Digital storytelling for enhancing student academic achievement, critical thinking; Learning motivation: A year-long experimental study. Computers and Education, 59(2), 339–352. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2011.12.012.

Bull, S., Feldman, P., & Solity, J. (2013). Classroom Management: Principles to Practice. Routledge, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom. doi:10.4324/9781315002439.

Fraser, B. (1998). Classroom environment instruments: Development, validity and applications. Learning Environments Research, 1(1), 7–34. doi:10.1023/A:1009932514731.

Paul, M. M., & Kumari, D. R. (2017). Physical conditions of a classroom–Dynamic elements promoting mental health and conducive learning in students. International Journal of Applied Social Science, 4, 211-215.

The Glossary of Educational Reform. (2013). Learning environment. Available online: https://www.edglossary.org/learning-environment/ (accessed on January 2022).

Aksovaara, S., & Maunonen-eskelinen, I. (2013). Article: A learning environment to support the joy of learning. Center for Economic Development, Transport and the Environment. Available online: https://oppimateriaalit.jamk.fi/ajatusliikkuu/in-english/article-a-learning-environment-to-support-the-joy-of-learning/ (accessed on January 2022).

Ferri, F., Grifoni, P., & Guzzo, T. (2020). Online learning and emergency remote teaching: Opportunities and challenges in emergency situations. Societies, 10(4). doi:10.3390/soc10040086.

Govender, D. (1997). Appropriate theme: Overcoming Barriers to access & success, Creating an environment conducive to adult distance learning. Personnel Practitioner: Training & Development (SA Board for Personnel Practice), South Africa.

Sithole, N. (2017). Promoting a Positive Learning Environment: School Setting Investigation. Master Thesis, University of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa. Available online: https://uir.unisa.ac.za/handle/10500/24348 (accessed on January 2022).

Hiemstra, R. (1991). Creating environments for effective adult learning. Jossey-Bass Inc. Pub, San Francisco, United States.

Lo, C. K., & Hew, K. F. (2017). A critical review of flipped classroom challenges in K-12 education: possible solutions and recommendations for future research. Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning, 12(1), 4. doi:10.1186/s41039-016-0044-2.

Santikarn, B., & Wichadee, S. (2018). Flipping the classroom for English language learners: A study of learning performance and perceptions. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 13(9), 123–135. doi:10.3991/ijet.v13i09.7792.

Nedeva, V., Dineva, S., & Ducheva, Z. (2019). Students in Blended Learning by Flipped Classroom Approach. Information Technologies and Learning Tools, 72(4), 204–213. doi:10.33407/itlt.v72i4.3046.

Suartama, I. K., Setyosari, P., Sulthoni, S., & Ulfa, S. (2019). Development of an Instructional Design Model for Mobile Blended Learning in Higher Education. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (iJET), 14(16), 4. doi:10.3991/ijet.v14i16.10633.

Bechter, C., & Swierczek, F. W. (2017). Digital storytelling in a flipped classroom for effective learning. Education Sciences, 7(2), 61 – 70. doi:10.3390/educsci7020061.

Snelling, C., Karanicolas, S., & Winning, T. (2016). From concept to practice: Helping teachers to create effective flipped classrooms. Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on e-Learning (ECEL), Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic, 27–28 October (2016): 786–788.

Sakulprasertsri, K. (2017). Flipped Learning Approach: Engaging 21st Century Learners in English Classrooms. LEARN Journal: Language Education and Acquisition Research Network, 10(2), 132-143.

Gerstein, J. (2011). The Flipped Classroom Model: A Full Picture. User Generated Education. Available online: http://usergeneratededucation.wordpress.com/2011/06/13/the-flipped-classroom-model-a-full-picture/ (accessed on January 2022).

Friesen, S., & Scott, D. (2013). Inquiry-based learning: A review of the research literature. Alberta Ministry of Education, 32.

Kong, S. C. (2014). Developing information literacy and critical thinking skills through domain knowledge learning in digital classrooms: An experience of practicing flipped classroom strategy. Computers & Education, 78, 160–173. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2014.05.009.

Pedaste, M., Mäeots, M., Siiman, L. A., de Jong, T., van Riesen, S. A. N., Kamp, E. T., Manoli, C. C., Zacharia, Z. C., & Tsourlidaki, E. (2015). Phases of inquiry-based learning: Definitions and the inquiry cycle. Educational Research Review, 14, 47–61. doi:10.1016/j.edurev.2015.02.003.

Suyasa, P. W. A., & Divayana, D. G. H. (2021). Modification of CSE-UCLA and Discrepancy as a New Evaluation Model in Education. Emerging Science Journal, 5(6), 929–942. doi:10.28991/esj-2021-01321.

Bunwirat, N., & Boonsathorn, S. (2018). Inquiry-Based Learning: an Effective Pedagogical Approach for Empowering 21st Century Learners and Education 4.0 in Thailand. Political Science and Public Administration Journal, 9(1), 163–183.

Bybee, R. W., Taylor, J. A., Gardner, A., Van Scotter, P., Powell, J. C., Westbrook, A., & Landes, N. (2006). The BSCS 5E instructional model: Origins and effectiveness. Colorado Springs, Co: BSCS, 5, 88-98.

Hossain, Z., Bumbacher, E., Brauneis, A., Diaz, M., Saltarelli, A., Blikstein, P., & Riedel-Kruse, I. H. (2018). Design Guidelines and Empirical Case Study for Scaling Authentic Inquiry-based Science Learning via Open Online Courses and Interactive Biology Cloud Labs. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 28(4), 478–507. doi:10.1007/s40593-017-0150-3.

Kong, S. C., & Song, Y. (2013). A principle-based pedagogical design framework for developing constructivist learning in a seamless learning environment: A teacher development model for learning and teaching in digital classrooms. British Journal of Educational Technology, 44(6), E209–E212. doi:10.1111/bjet.12073.

Duran, L. B., & Duran, E. (2004). The 5E instructional model: A learning cycle approach for inquiry-based science teaching. Science Education Review, 3(2), 49-58.

Duran, E., Duran, L., Haney, J., & Scheuermann, A. (2011). A learning cycle for all students: modifying the 5E instructional model to address the needs of all learners. Science Teacher, 78(3), 56–60.

Lambert, J. (2010). Cookbook for Digital Storytelling. Digital diner Press, Berkeley, United States.

Banks, J. A., & Clegg, A. A. (1977). Teaching strategies for the social studies: Inquiry, valuing, and decision-making. Addison Wesley Publishing Company, Boston, United States.

Bloom, B. S. “Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals, Handbook I: Cognitive Objectives” (1956). Longmans, New York, United States.

Marzano, R. J., & Kendall, J. S. (2006). The new taxonomy of educational objectives (2nd Ed.). Corwin Press, Thousand oaks, united States.

Thaneerananon, T., Triampo, W., & Nokkaew, A. (2016). Development of a test to evaluate students’ analytical thinking based on fact versus opinion differentiation. International Journal of Instruction, 9(2), 123–138. doi:10.12973/iji.2016.929a.

Sitthipon, A. (2017). Development of Analytical Thingking Skills AMONG Thai University Students. The Turkish Online Journal of Education Technologi. Special issue for INTE 2017, 862-869.

Sartika, S. B. (2018). Teaching Models to Increase Students’ Analytical Thinking Skills. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Intellectuals’ Global Responsibility (ICIGR 2017). doi:10.2991/icigr-17.2018.52.

Muhartati, D., Isnaeni, W., & Ridlo, S. (2019). The Analytical Thinking Skill of Grade XI Students of SMA Negeri 15 Semarang. Journal of Biology Education, 8(1), 106–116. doi:10.15294/jbe.v8i1.26208.

Anderson, L. W., Krathwohl, D. R., & Bloom, B. S. (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing, a: a revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives, Abridge Edition (1st Ed.). Pearson, London, United Kingdom.

Fournier, D. M. (1994). The Program Evaluation Standards: How to Assess Evaluations of Educational Programs, 2nd Edition-The Joint Committee on Standards for educational Evaluation-thousand Oaks, CA: sage, 1994. Journal of Educational Measurement, 31(4), 363–367.

Stufflebeam, D. (2001). Evaluation Models. New Directions for Evaluation, 2001(89), 7. doi:10.1002/ev.3.

Stufflebeam, D. L. (2010). Meta-Evaluation. Journal of MultiDisciplinary Evaluation, 7(15), 99–158.

IBM. (2020). Kuder-Richardson Reliability Coefficients KR20 and KR21. Available online: https://www.ibm.com/support/pages/kuder-richardson-reliability-coefficients-kr20-and-kr21 (accessed on January 2022).

Sanders, J. R. (1994). The program evaluation standards: How to assess evaluations of educational programs (2nd Ed.). Sage Publication, Thousans Oaks, United States

Crowley-Barnett, J., Pagano, T., & Kent, M. (2020). Engaging Perioperative Learners Using Online game-based Education. AORN Journal, 112(5), 447–456. doi:10.1002/aorn.13206.

Mokkenstorm, J. K., Mérelle, S. Y. M., Smit, J. H., Beekman, A. T. F., Kerkhof, A. J. F. M., Huisman, A., & Gilissen, R. (2020). Exploration of Benefits and Potential Harmful Effects of an Online Forum for Visitors to the Suicide Prevention Platform in the Netherlands. Crisis, 41(3), 205–213. doi:10.1027/0227-5910/a000627.

Goodman R. I., Fletcher, K. A. and Schneider, E. W. (1980). The Effectiveness Index as Comparative Measure in Media Product Evaluation. Educational Technology, 20(9), 30–34.

The Ministry of Education Thailand. (2008). The Basic Education Core Curriculum B.E. 2551 (A.D. 2008). Available online: http://academic.obec.go.th/images/document/1525235513_d_1.pdf (accessed on January 2022).

Anggraeni, R. E., & Suratno. (2021). The analysis of the development of the 5E-STEAM learning model to improve critical thinking skills in natural science lesson. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1832(1), 12050. doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1832/1/012050.

Ramdani, A., Jufri, A. W., Gunawan, Fahrurrozi, M., & Yustiqvar, M. (2021). Analysis of students’ critical thinking skills in terms of gender using science teaching materials based on the 5e learning cycle integrated with local wisdom. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 10(2), 187–199. doi:10.15294/jpii.v10i2.29956.

Bangpoophamorn, K., & Wiriyanon, T. (2019). The Development of Flipped Classroom Model with Self-Directed Learning to Enhance Critical Thinking in an Undergraduate Course. Technical Education Journal King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok, 10(2), 41–50. (In Thai).

Rintayati, P., Lukitasari, H., & Syawaludin, A. (2021). Development of Two-Tier Multiple Choice Test to Assess Indonesian Elementary Students’ Higher-Order Thinking Skills. International Journal of Instruction, 14(1), 555–566. doi:10.29333/iji.2021.14133a.

Mitarlis, Ibnu, S., Rahayu, S., & Sutrisno. (2020). The effectiveness of new inquiry-based learning (NIBL) for improving multiple higher-order thinking skills (M-HOTS) of prospective chemistry teachers. European Journal of Educational Research, 9(3), 1309–1325. doi:10.12973/eu-jer.9.3.1309.

Khan, K., Aurangzeb, W., & Tahir, T. (2020). Effectiveness of 5 Es Learning Cycle Model on Students Learning in Physics at Secondary School Level in Pakistan. Global Social Sciences Review, V(I), 469–478. doi:10.31703/gssr.2020(v-i).48.

Yap, K. C., & Yeany, R. H. (1988). Validation of hierarchical relationships among piagetian cognitive modes and integrated science process skills for different cognitive reasoning levels. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 25(4), 247–281. doi:10.1002/tea.3660250402.

Saenboonsong, S. (2017). Developing an inverted classroom learning management model using cloud technology affecting academic achievement in computer courses for teachers of bachelor’s degree students. Journal of Graduate Studies: Valaya Alongkron Rajabhat University, 11(Special), 133-146.

Demirhan, E., & Köklükaya, A. N. (2014). The Critical Thinking Dispositions of Prospective Science Teachers. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 116, 1551–1555. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.433.

D’Alessio, F. A., Avolio, B. E., & Charles, V. (2019). Studying the impact of critical thinking on the academic performance of executive MBA students. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 31, 275–283. doi:10.1016/j.tsc.2019.02.002.

Gojkov, G., Stojanović, A., & Rajić, A. G. (2015). Critical Thinking of Students – Indicator of Quality in Higher Education. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 191, 591–596. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.04.501.

McCormick, N. J., Clark, L. M., & Raines, J. M. (2015). Engaging Students in Critical Thinking and Problem Solving: A Brief Review of the Literature. Journal of Studies in Education, 5(4), 100. doi:10.5296/jse.v5i4.8249.

McLaughlin, J. E., Roth, M. T., Glatt, D. M., Gharkholonarehe, N., Davidson, C. A., Griffin, L. M., … Mumper, R. J. (2014). The Flipped Classroom. Academic Medicine, 89(2), 236–243. doi:10.1097/acm.0000000000000086.

McDonald, G. (2012). Teaching critical & analytical thinking in high school biology? American Biology Teacher, 74(3), 178–181. doi:10.1525/abt.2012.74.3.9.

Kosalawit, J., Samawattana, K., & Simmathan, P. (2018). Developing a blended learning model using quest techniques: A peer-to-peer model for enhancing critical thinking skills for undergraduate students. Journal of Industrial Technology Ubin Ratchathani Rajabhat University, 7(1), 46-57.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/ESJ-2022-06-04-06


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Thiyaporn Kantathanawat