Understanding Organizational Citizenship Behaviour through Organizational Justice and its Consequences among Vietnamese’s Universities Employees

Phuong Ngoc Duy Nguyen, Dong Nguyen Thanh Le


This paper aims to investigate the impact of organizational justice components on job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and organizational citizenship behaviours (OCB) of employees in the higher education sector of Vietnam. Although many research studies have been conducted in organizations on the topics of organizational justice, as well as organizational commitment, and organizational citizenship behaviour, there is a shortage of these topics in higher education institutions as well as in Asian context. Therefore, this article attempts to fill this literature gap. A total of 317 employees from various universities in Vietnam participated in this study, and a self-administered survey was conducted, which was modified based on suggestions from the universities' management team following interviews. The collected data were analyzed using the partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) technique. The results showed that procedural justice and interactional justice had a significant impact on both job satisfaction and organizational commitment, while distributive justice only affected job satisfaction. Furthermore, the study found that job satisfaction and organizational commitment significantly affected OCB. However, this study had a limitation in terms of the narrow sample size, which only included participants from universities. Future studies should broaden the sample size to include participants from vocational colleges. On paper, the study shows the effects of organizational justice on OCB through the mediating roles of individual work outputs, which received inadequate attention in previous studies.


Doi: 10.28991/ESJ-2023-SIED2-08

Full Text: PDF


Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB); Organizational Justice; Organizational Commitment; Higher Education; Vietnam.


Becker, G.S. (2009). Human capital: A theoretical and empirical analysis, with special reference to education. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, United States. doi:10.7208/chicago/9780226041223.001.0001.

Bidarian, S., & Jafari, P. (2012). The Relationship Between Organizational Justice and Organizational Trust. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 47, 1622–1626. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.06.873.

Dipaola, M., & Tschannen-Moran, M. (2001). Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Schools and Its Relationship to School Climate. Journal of School Leadership, 11(5), 424–447. doi:10.1177/105268460101100503.

Lee, M. N. N. (2004). Global trends, national policies and institutional responses: Restructuring higher education in Malaysia. Educational Research for Policy and Practice, 3(1), 31–46. doi:10.1007/s10671-004-6034-y.

Organ, D.W. (1988) Organizational Citizenship Behaviour: The Good Soldier Syndrome. Lexington Books, Lexington, Pennsylvania, United States.

Chelagat, L. J., Chepkwony, P. K., & Kemboi, A. (2015). Effect of organizational citizenship behavior on employee performance in banking sector, Nairobi County, Kenya. International Journal of Business, Humanities and Technology, 5(4), 55-61.

Khan, K., Abbas, M., Gul, A., & Raja, U. (2015). Organizational Justice and Job Outcomes: Moderating Role of Islamic Work Ethic. Journal of Business Ethics, 126(2), 235–246. doi:10.1007/s10551-013-1937-2.

Ocampo, L., Acedillo, V., Bacunador, A. M., Balo, C. C., Lagdameo, Y. J., & Tupa, N. S. (2018). A historical review of the development of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and its implications for the twenty-first century. Personnel Review, 47(4), 821–862. doi:10.1108/PR-04-2017-0136.

Lepine, J. A., Erez, A., & Johnson, D. E. (2002). The nature and dimensionality of organizational citizenship behavior: a critical review and meta-analysis. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(1), 52–65. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.87.1.52.

Lee, K., & Allen, N. J. (2002). Organizational citizenship behavior and workplace deviance: the role of affect and cognitions. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(1), 131–142. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.87.1.131.

Blau, P. (1964). Power and exchange in social life. John Wiley Sons, New York, United States.

Podsakoff, P. M., Mac Kenzie, S. B., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2016). Recommendations for Creating Better Concept Definitions in the Organizational, Behavioral, and Social Sciences. Organizational Research Methods, 19(2), 159–203. doi:10.1177/1094428115624965.

Shore, L. M., Coyle-Shapiro, J. A. M., Chen, X. P., & Tetrick, L. E. (2009). Social exchange in work settings: Content, process, and mixed models. Management and Organization Review, 5(3), 289–302. doi:10.1111/j.1740-8784.2009.00158.x.

Molm, L. D. (2003). Theoretical comparisons of forms of exchange. Sociological Theory, 21(1), 1–17. doi:10.1111/1467-9558.00171.

Hopkins, K. M. (2002). Organizational citizenship in social service agencies. Administration in Social Work, 26(2), 1–15. doi:10.1300/J147v26n02_01.

Colquitt, J. A., Greenberg, J., & Zapata-Phelan, C. P. (2013). What Is Organizational Justice? A Historical Overview. (2013). Handbook of Organizational Justice, 25–78, Psychology Press, London, United Kingdom. doi:10.4324/9780203774847-8.

Cropanzano, R., Rupp, D. E., Mohler, C. J., & Schminke, M. (2001). Three roads to organizational justice. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 1–113. Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, United Kingdom. doi:10.1016/S0742-7301(01)20001-2.

Bies, R. J., & Shapiro, D. L. (1987). Interactional fairness judgments: The influence of causal accounts. Social Justice Research, 1(2), 199–218. doi:10.1007/BF01048016.

Cropanzano, R., & Folger, R. (1989). Referent Cognitions and Task Decision Autonomy: Beyond Equity Theory. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74(2), 293–299. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.74.2.293.

Cropanzano, R., & Greenberg, J. (1997). Progress in Organizational Justice: Tunneling Through the Maze. International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 12, 317–372.

McDowall, A., & Fletcher, C. (2004). Employee development: An organizational justice perspective. Personnel Review, 33(1), 8–29. doi:10.1108/00483480410510606.

Locke, E. A. (1976). The nature and causes of job satisfaction. Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology. RandMc Narlly, Chicago, United States.

Sony, M., & Mekoth, N. (2016). The relationship between emotional intelligence, frontline employee adaptability, job satisfaction and job performance. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 30, 20–32. doi:10.1016/j.jretconser.2015.12.003.

Smith, P. C., Balzer, W., Brannick, M., Chia, W., Eggleston, S., Gibson, W., Johnson, B., Josephson, H., Paul, K., & Reilly, C. (1987). The revised JDI: A facelift for an old friend. The Industrial-Organizational Psychologist, 24(4), 31–33.

Nanjundeswaraswamy, T. S. (2019). Development and validation of job satisfaction scale for different sectors. International Journal for Quality Research, 13(1), 193–220. doi:10.24874/IJQR13.01-12.

Becker, H. S. (1960). Notes on the Concept of Commitment. American Journal of Sociology, 66(1), 32–40. doi:10.1086/222820.

Porter, L. W., Steers, R. M., Mowday, R. T., & Boulian, P. V. (1974). Organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and turnover among psychiatric technicians. Journal of Applied Psychology, 59(5), 603–609. doi:10.1037/h0037335.

Meyer, J. P., Allen, N. J., & Smith, C. A. (1993). Commitment to Organizations and Occupations: Extension and Test of a Three-Component Conceptualization. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(4), 538–551. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.78.4.538.

Gautam, T., Van Dick, R., Wagner, U., Upadhyay, N., & Davis, A. J. (2005). Organizational citizenship behavior and organizational commitment in Nepal. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 8(3), 305–314. doi:10.1111/j.1467-839X.2005.00172.x.

Markovits, Y., Davis, A. J., Fay, D., & van Dick, R. (2010). The link between job satisfaction and organizational commitment: Differences between public and private sector employees. International Public Management Journal, 13(2), 177–196. doi:10.1080/10967491003756682.

Kim, W. G., Leong, J. K., & Lee, Y. K. (2005). Effect of service orientation on job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and intention of leaving in a casual dining chain restaurant. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 24(2), 171–193. doi:10.1016/j.ijhm.2004.05.004.

Bateman, T. S., & Organ, D. W. (1983). Job Satisfaction and the Good Soldier: The Relationship Between Affect and Employee “Citizenship.” Academy of Management Journal, 26(4), 587–595. doi:10.5465/255908.

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Moorman, R. H., & Fetter, R. (1990). Transformational leader behaviors and their effects on followers’ trust in leader, satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behaviors. The Leadership Quarterly, 1(2), 107–142. doi:10.1016/1048-9843(90)90009-7.

Podsakoff, P. M., & MacKenzie, S. B. (1997). Impact of organizational citizenship behavior on organizational performance: A review and suggestions for future research. Human Performance, 10(2), 133–151. doi:10.1207/s15327043hup1002_5.

Yadav, R. (2016). Antecedents and Consequences of Organizational Justice. Management Insight - The Journal of Incisive Analysers, 12(02), 66–78. doi:10.21844/mijia.v12i02.6974.

Colquitt, J. A., Wesson, M. J., Porter, C. O. L. H., Conlon, D. E., & Ng, K. Y. (2001). Justice at the millennium: A meta-analytic review of 25 years of organizational justice research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(3), 425–445. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.86.3.425.

Masterson, S. S., Lewis, K., Goldman, B. M., & Taylor, M. S. (2000). Integrating Justice and Social Exchange: The Differing Effects of Fair Procedures and Treatment on Work Relationships. Academy of Management Journal, 43(4), 738–748. doi:10.5465/1556364.

Zainalipour, H., Fini, A. A. S., & Mirkamali, S. M. (2010). A study of relationship between organizational justice and job satisfaction among teachers in Bandar Abbas middle school. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 5, 1986–1990. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.07.401.

Dillman, J., & Cole, D. (2000). No Equal Justice: Race and Class in the American Criminal Justice System. The Antioch Review, 58(2), 242. doi:10.2307/4614002.

Lambert, E. G., Hogan, N. L., & Griffin, M. L. (2007). The impact of distributive and procedural justice on correctional staff job stress, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. Journal of Criminal Justice, 35(6), 644–656. doi:10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2007.09.001.

McFarlin, D. B., & Sweeney, P. D. (1992). Research Notes. Distributive and Procedural Justice as Predictors of Satisfaction with Personal and Organizational Outcomes. Academy of Management Journal, 35(3), 626–637. doi:10.5465/256489.

DeConinck, J. B. (2010). The effect of organizational justice, perceived organizational support, and perceived supervisor support on marketing employees’ level of trust. Journal of Business Research, 63(12), 1349–1355. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2010.01.003.

Al-Zu’bi, H. A. (2010). A Study of Relationship between Organizational Justice and Job Satisfaction. International Journal of Business and Management, 5(12), 102. doi:10.5539/ijbm.v5n12p102.

Martínez-Tur, V., Peiró, J. M., Ramos, J., & Moliner, C. (2006). Justice perceptions as predictors of customer satisfaction: The impact of distributive, procedural, and interactional justice. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36(1), 100–119. doi:10.1111/j.0021-9029.2006.00005.x.

Greenberg, J., & Cropanzano, R. (1993). The social side of fairness: Interpersonal and informational classes of organizational justice. Justice in the Workplace: Approaching Fairness in Human Resource Management, Lawrence, London, United Kingdom.

Greenberg, J. (1990). Organizational Justice: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow. Journal of Management, 16(2), 399–432. doi:10.1177/014920639001600208.

Chan, S. H. J., & Lai, H. Y. I. (2017). Understanding the link between communication satisfaction, perceived justice and organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Business Research, 70, 214–223. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2016.08.017.

Lind, E. A., & Tyler, T. R. (1988). The Social Psychology of Procedural Justice. Critical Issues in Social Justice, Springer, New York, United States. doi:10.1007/978-1-4899-2115-4.

Bakhshi, A., Kumar, K., & Rani, E. (2009). Organizational justice perceptions as predictor of job satisfaction and organization commitment. International Journal of Business and Management, 4(9). doi:10.5539/ijbm.v4n9p145.

Jang, J., Lee, D. W., & Kwon, G. H. (2021). An Analysis of the Influence of Organizational Justice on Organizational Commitment. International Journal of Public Administration, 44(2), 146–154. doi:10.1080/01900692.2019.1672185.

Lambert, E. G., Tewksbury, R., Otu, S. E., & Elechi, O. O. (2021). The Association of Organizational Justice with Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment among Nigerian Correctional Staff. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 65(2–3), 180–204. doi:10.1177/0306624X20946926.

Foote, D. A., & Li-Ping, T. (2008). Job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB): Does team commitment make a difference in self-directed teams? Management Decision, 46(6), 933–947. doi:10.1108/00251740810882680.

Wagner III, J. A., & Hollenbeck, J. R. (2009). Organizational Behavior. Routledge, New York, United States. doi:10.4324/9780203873533.

Talachi, R. K., Gorji, M. B., & Boerhannoeddin, A. B. (2014). An investigation of the role of job satisfaction in employees’ organizational citizenship behavior. Collegium antropologicum, 38(2), 429-436.

Irshad, E., & Naz, S. (2011). Job satisfaction, organizational commitment and personality traits: A relationship study. The Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences, 19(2), 37-60.

Gunlu, E., Aksarayli, M., & Şahin Perçin, N. (2010). Job satisfaction and organizational commitment of hotel managers in Turkey. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 22(5), 693–717. doi:10.1108/09596111011053819.

Organ, D. W., Podsakoff, P. M., & MacKenzie, S. B. (2006). Organizational citizenship behavior: Its nature, antecedents, and consequences. Sage Publications, London, United Kingdom. doi:10.4135/9781452231082.

Khalil, S., Lietz, A., & Mayer, S. J. (2022). Overeducation as moderator for the link between job change and job satisfaction among immigrants and natives in Germany. Current Psychology, 1-17. doi:10.1007/s12144-022-03695-7.

O’Reilly, C., & Chatman, J. (1986). Organizational Commitment and Psychological Attachment. The Effects of Compliance, Identification, and Internalization on Prosocial Behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71(3), 492–499. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.71.3.492.

Schappe, S. P. (1998). The Influence of Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, and Fairness Perceptions on Organizational Citizenship Behavior. The Journal of Psychology, 132(3), 277–290. doi:10.1080/00223989809599167.

Rana, M. S., Iftikhar, U., Abbasi, S. G., & Abbas, M. (2018). The role of organizational justice to develop organizational citizenship behavior: moderating effect of Islamic work ethics. Amazonia Investiga, 7(16), 46-60.

ORGAN, D. W., & RYAN, K. (1995). a Meta‐Analytic Review of Attitudinal and Dispositional Predictors of Organizational Citizenship Behavior. Personnel Psychology, 48(4), 775–802. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.1995.tb01781.x.

Crane, A., Matten, D., & Moon, J. (2008). Corporations and citizenship: Business, responsibility and society. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511488542.

Lim, B. T. H., & Loosemore, M. (2017). The effect of inter-organizational justice perceptions on organizational citizenship behaviors in construction projects. International Journal of Project Management, 35(2), 95–106. doi:10.1016/j.ijproman.2016.10.016.

Awang, R., & Wan Ahmad, W. M. R. (2015). The Impact of Organizational Justice on Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Malaysian Higher Education. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences. doi:10.5901/mjss.2015.v6n5s2p674.

Organ, D. W. (2018). 2 The Roots of Organizational Citizenship. The Oxford handbook of organizational citizenship behavior, Oxford University Press, Oxford, United Kingdom.

DiPaola, M. F., & Hoy, W. K. (2008). Principals Improving Instruction: Supervision, Evaluation, and Professional Development. Information Age Publishing (IAP), Chalotte, United States.

Byrne, Z. S., & Cropanzano, R. (2012). The history of organizational justice: The founders speak. Justice in the Workplace: From Theory to Practice, 2(1), 3–26. doi:10.4324/9781410600301-7.

Kuenzi, M., Brown, M. E., Mayer, D. M., & Priesemuth, M. (2019). Supervisor-Subordinate (Dis)agreement on Ethical Leadership: An Investigation of its Antecedents and Relationship to Organizational Deviance. Business Ethics Quarterly, 29(1), 25–53. doi:10.1017/beq.2018.14.

Lehmann-Willenbrock, N., Grohmann, A., & Kauffeld, S. (2013). Promoting multifoci citizenship behavior: Time-lagged effects of procedural justice, trust, and commitment. Applied Psychology, 62(3), 454–485. doi:10.1111/j.1464-0597.2012.00488.x.

De Lara, P. Z. M. (2008). Fairness, teachers’ non-task behavior and alumni satisfaction: The influence of group commitment. Journal of Educational Administration, 46(4), 514–538. doi:10.1108/09578230810882036.

Cohen, A., & Keren, D. (2008). Individual values and social exchange variables: Examining their relationship to and mutual effect on in-role performance and organizational citizenship behavior. Group and Organization Management, 33(4), 425–452. doi:10.1177/1059601108321823.

Leventhal, G.S. (1980). What Should Be Done with Equity Theory?. Social Exchange. Springer, Boston, United States. doi:10.1007/978-1-4613-3087-5_2.

Thibaut, J. W. (2017). The social psychology of groups. Routledge, New York, United States. doi:10.4324/9781315135007.

Smith, P. C., Budzeika, K. A., Edwards, N. A., Johnson, S. M., & Bearse, L. N. (1986). Guidelines for clean data: Detection of common mistakes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71(3), 457. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.71.3.457.

Aboramadan, M., Dahleez, K., & Hamad, M. H. (2020). Servant leadership and academics outcomes in higher education: the role of job satisfaction. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 29(3), 562–584. doi:10.1108/IJOA-11-2019-1923.

Meyer, J. P., Morin, A. J. S., Stanley, L. J., & Maltin, E. R. (2019). Teachers’ dual commitment to the organization and occupation: A person-centered investigation. Teaching and Teacher Education, 77, 100–111. doi:10.1016/j.tate.2018.09.009.

Fox, S., Spector, P. E., Goh, A., Bruursema, K., & Kessler, S. R. (2012). The deviant citizen: Measuring potential positive relations between counterproductive work behaviour and organizational citizenship behaviour. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 85(1), 199–220. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8325.2011.02032.x.

Podsakoff, N. P., Podsakoff, P. M., Mackenzie, S. B., Maynes, T. D., Whiting, S. W., & Spoelma, T. M. (2017). Multilevel Antecedents of Organizational Citizenship Behavior: A Review and Recommendations for Future Research. Oxford Handbooks Online, Oxford University Press, Oxford, United Kingdom. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190219000.013.43.

Kaplan, D. (2008). Structural equation modeling: Foundations and extensions. SAGE publications, London, United Kingdom.

Hair, J. F., Page, M., & Brunsveld, N. (2019). Essentials of Business Research Methods, Routledge, New York, United States. doi:10.4324/9780429203374.

Leguina, A. (2015). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). International Journal of Research & Method in Education, 38(2), 220–221. doi:10.1080/1743727x.2015.1005806.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–50. doi:10.1177/002224378101800104.

Chin, W.W. (2010). How to Write Up and Report PLS Analyses. Handbook of Partial Least Squares. Springer Handbooks of Computational Statistics, Springer, Berlin, Germany. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-32827-8_29.

Clay-Warner, J., Reynolds, J., & Roman, P. (2005). Organizational justice and job satisfaction: A test of three competing models. Social Justice Research, 18(4), 391–409. doi:10.1007/s11211-005-8567-5.

Lambert, E. G., Keena, L. D., Leone, M., May, D., & Haynes, S. H. (2020). The effects of distributive and procedural justice on job satisfaction and organizational commitment ofcorrectional staff. Social Science Journal, 57(4), 405–416. doi:10.1016/j.soscij.2019.02.002.

Wang, H., Lu, G., & Liu, Y. (2017). Ethical Leadership and Loyalty to Supervisor in China: The Roles of Interactional Justice and Collectivistic Orientation. Journal of Business Ethics, 146(3), 529–543. doi:10.1007/s10551-015-2916-6.

Sun, I. Y., Wu, Y., Otu, S. E., Aro, G. C., Akor, I. C., & Nnam, M. U. (2022). Linking Organizational Justice to Organizational Commitment Among Nigerian Police Officers. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 49(2), 220–238. doi:10.1177/00938548211036177.

Aggarwal, A., Jaisinghani, D., & Nobi, K. (2022). Effect of organizational justice and support on organizational commitment and employee turnover intentions: the mediating role of employee engagement. International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, 14(4), 525–554. doi:10.1108/IJQSS-08-2021-0112.

Chang, E. (2002). Distributive justice and organizational commitment revisited: Moderation by layoff in the case of Korean employees. Human Resource Management, 41(2), 261–270. doi:10.1002/hrm.10035.

Zeinabadi, H., & Salehi, K. (2011). Role of procedural justice, trust, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment in organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) of teachers: Proposing a modified social exchange model. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 29, 1472–1481. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.11.387.

Organ, D. W. (2018). Organizational citizenship behavior: Recent trends and developments. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 5(1), 295–306. doi:10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-032117-104536.

Cetin, S., Gürbüz, S., & Sert, M. (2015). A Meta-analysis of the Relationship Between Organizational Commitment and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Test of Potential Moderator Variables. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 27(4), 281–303. doi:10.1007/s10672-015-9266-5.

Musringudin, M., Akbar, M., & Karnati, N. (2017). The effect of organizational justice, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment on organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) of the principles. Ijer-indonesian journal of educational review, 4(2), 155-165. doi:10.21009/IJER.04.02.17.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/ESJ-2023-SIED2-08


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Dong Nguyen Thanh Le