Return to Face-to-Face Classrooms in Higher Education: Students Experiences in Chile, Venezuela, and Ecuador

Karla Lobos, Rubia Cobo-Rendón, Fabiola Sáez, Javier Mella, Nataly Cisternas


Emergency remote teaching (ERE) triggered by the COVID-19 pandemic posed significant challenges to higher education institutions worldwide. Although it had several negative consequences, it also enabled advances in the integration of technology into the teaching and learning process. The purpose of this study was to examine and characterize the key elements of the process of returning to face-to-face courses. The study was based on a mixed quantitative and qualitative design. 631 students from Chile, Venezuela, and Colombia were surveyed about their experiences returning to face-to-face classes (in terms of virtual tools, their feelings, and their expectations for academic success). The survey also included questions about the lockdown caused by the pandemic, specifically regarding instructional and didactic design, participation in online sessions, and the role of faculty during the pandemic. Descriptive and correlative analyses were performed to examine relationships among variables. Qualitative data were analyzed within a hermeneutically-oriented framework. Our analyses show that virtual classrooms or learning management systems (LMS) continued to be used after the pandemic. However, their use is strongly associated with a more traditional approach to teaching; LMSs and virtual classrooms are primarily used as filing locations and for receiving and storing homework assignments and assessments. In terms of interaction, qualitative analyses have shown that relationships with faculty and between students are better in face-to-face classes and that there is not much difference in perceptions of collaborative work in online learning compared to face-to-face classes. Finally, students' expectations of academic success are low in the short term, while they are higher in the long term. Students also indicated that it is important to them that teachers take care about the didactic design of the course, including strategies that encourage interaction and participation in both synchronous and asynchronous sessions. In addition, students mentioned that teachers should incorporate strategies to promote academic motivation, self-regulation, and a safe environment. An important finding of this study is that students prefer a blended learning format when comparing online and face-to-face instruction. This article also provides recommendations for the new post-pandemic education scenario.


Doi: 10.28991/ESJ-2023-SIED2-017

Full Text: PDF


Higher Education; COVID-19; University Students; Quality Education; Virtual Education.


Bernardo, A. B., Tuero, E., Cervero, A., Dobarro, A., & Galve-González, C. (2020). Bullying and cyberbullying: Variables that influence university dropout. Comunicar, 28(64), 61–69. doi:10.3916/C64-2020-06.

Aguilar Gordón, F. del R. (2020). Del aprendizaje en escenarios presenciales al aprendizaje virtual en tiempos de pandemia. Estudios Pedagógicos (Valdivia), 46(3), 213–223. doi:10.4067/s0718-07052020000300213. (In Spanish).

Lobos, K., Cisternas, N., & y Bruna, C. (2022). Innovation in university teaching, Strategies for change and innovation (1st Ed.). University of Concepción, Concepción, Chile. (In Spanish)

Gros Salvat, B. (2018). La evolución del e-learning: del aula virtual a la red. RIED. Revista Iberoamericana de Educación a Distancia, 21(2), 69. doi:10.5944/ried.21.2.20577. (In Spanish).

Hodges, C., Moore, S., Lockee, B., Trust, T., & Bond, A. (2020). The difference between emergency remote teaching and online learning. EDUCAUSE, Boulder, United States. Avaialble online: (accessed on April 2023).

Ibáñez, F. (2020). Online, Virtual, Distance and Emergency Remote Education, what are their characteristics and differences? Observatory of Educational Innovation, Tecnológico de Monterrey (Mexico). Institute for the Future of Education Tecnológico de Monterrey, Monterrey, Mexico. Available online: (accessed on April 2023). (In Spanish).

Branch, R.M., & Dousay, T.A. (2015). Survey of Instructional Design Models (5th Ed.). Association for Educational Communications and Technology, Bloomington, United States.

Meza-López, L. D., Torres-Velandia, S. Á., & Lara-Ruiz, J. J. (2016). Estrategias de aprendizaje emergentes en la modalidad e-learning. Revista de Educación a Distancia (RED), 48(48), 1–22. doi:10.6018/red/48/5. (In Spanish).

Altinpulluk, H., Kilinc, H., Firat, M., & Yumurtaci, O. (2020). The influence of segmented and complete educational videos on the cognitive load, satisfaction, engagement, and academic achievement levels of learners. Journal of Computers in Education, 7(2), 155–182. doi:10.1007/s40692-019-00151-7.

Armesto-Céspedes, M. S., Vallejos-Armas, R. I., Medina-Coronado, D., & Bartra-Rivero, K. R. (2021). La enseñanza remota en la autonomía para el aprendizaje de estudiantes de universidades latinoamericanas. INNOVA Research Journal, 6(3.2), 1–13. doi:10.33890/innova.v6.n3.2.2021.1876.

Taveras-Pichardo, L. C., Paz-López, A., Silvestre, E., Montes-Miranda, A., & Figueroa-Gutiérrez, V. (2021). Satisfacción de los estudiantes universitarios con las clases virtuales adoptadas en el marco de la pandemia por COVID-19. Edmetic, 10(2), 139–162. doi:10.21071/edmetic.v10i2.12908.

Vázquez-Cano, E. (2015). El reto de la formación docente para el desarrollo de una metodología ubicua en la Educación Superior. Perspectiva Educacional, 54(1), 149–162. doi:10.4151/07189729-vol.54-iss.1-art.236. (In Spanish).

Espasa, A., Mayordomo, R. M., Guasch, T., & Martinez-Melo, M. (2022). Does the type of feedback channel used in online learning environments matter? Students’ perceptions and impact on learning. Active Learning in Higher Education, 23(1), 49–63. doi:10.1177/1469787419891307.

Azah Mansor, N., Abdullah, N., & Abd Rahman, H. (2020). Towards electronic learning features in education 4.0 environment: literature study. Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 19(1), 442. doi:10.11591/ijeecs.v19.i1.pp442-450.

Monroy, A., Hernández, I. A., & Jiménez, M. (2018). Aulas Digitales en la Educación Superior: Caso México. Formación Universitaria, 11(5), 93–104. doi:10.4067/s0718-50062018000500093. (In Spanish).

de Oliveira, C. F., Sobral, S. R., Ferreira, M. J., & Moreira, F. (2021). How does learning analytics contribute to prevent students’ dropout in higher education: A systematic literature review. Big Data and Cognitive Computing, 5(4), 1–33. doi:10.3390/bdcc5040064.

Martínez, G. A., & Jiménez, N. (2020). Análisis del uso de las aulas virtuales en la Universidad de Cundinamarca, Colombia. Formación Universitaria, 13(4), 81–92. doi.:10.4067/s0718-50062020000400081. (In Spanish).

Elfirdoussi, S., Lachgar, M., Kabaili, H., Rochdi, A., Goujdami, D., & El Firdoussi, L. (2020). Assessing Distance Learning in Higher Education during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Education Research International, 2020, 1–13. doi:10.1155/2020/8890633.

Dumford, A. D., & Miller, A. L. (2018). Online learning in higher education: exploring advantages and disadvantages for engagement. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 30(3), 452–465. doi:10.1007/s12528-018-9179-z.

Kebritchi, M., Lipschuetz, A., & Santiague, L. (2017). Issues and Challenges for Teaching Successful Online Courses in Higher Education. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 46(1), 4–29. doi:10.1177/0047239516661713.

Murillo, F. J., & Duk, C. (2020). El Covid-19 y las Brechas Educativas. Revista Latinoamericana de Educación Inclusiva, 14(1), 11–13. doi:10.4067/s0718-73782020000100011. (In Spanish).

Muthuprasad, T., Aiswarya, S., Aditya, K. S., & Jha, G. K. (2021). Students’ perception and preference for online education in India during COVID -19 pandemic. Social Sciences & Humanities Open, 3(1), 100101. doi:10.1016/j.ssaho.2020.100101.

Ferri, F., Grifoni, P., & Guzzo, T. (2020). Online learning and emergency remote teaching: Opportunities and challenges in emergency situations. Societies, 10(4), 86. doi:10.3390/soc10040086.

Xie, J., Gulinna, A., & Rice, M. F. (2021). Instructional designers’ roles in emergency remote teaching during COVID-19. Distance Education, 42(1), 70–87. doi:10.1080/01587919.2020.1869526.

Coman, C., Țîru, L. G., Meseșan-Schmitz, L., Stanciu, C., & Bularca, M. C. (2020). Online teaching and learning in higher education during the coronavirus pandemic: Students’ perspective. Sustainability (Switzerland), 12(24), 367. doi:10.3390/su122410367.

Aristovnik, A., Keržič, D., Ravšelj, D., Tomaževič, N., & Umek, L. (2020). Impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on life of higher education students: A global perspective. Sustainability (Switzerland), 12(20), 8438. doi:10.3390/su12208438.

Bączek, M., Zagańczyk-Bączek, M., Szpringer, M., Jaroszyński, A., & Wożakowska-Kapłon, B. (2021). Students’ perception of online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic: A survey study of Polish medical students. Medicine (United States), 100(7), E24821. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000024821.

Ruz-Fuenzalida, C. (2021). Educación virtual y enseñanza remota de emergencia en el contexto de la educación superior técnico-profesional: posibilidades y barreras. Revista Saberes Educativos, 6, 128. doi:10.5354/2452-5014.2021.60713.

Contreras, J. L. G., Torres, C. A. B., & Ojeda, Y. C. E. (2022). Using of ICT and LKT in higher education: A bibliometric analysis. Revista Complutense de Educacion, 33(3), 601–613. doi:10.5209/rced.73922. (In Spanish).

Kuklinski, H. P., & Cobo, C. (2020). Expand the university beyond emergency remote teaching. Ideas towards a post-pandemic hybrid model. Outliers School, Barcelona, Spain. (In Spanish).

Zhu, X., & Liu, J. (2020). Education in and After Covid-19: Immediate Responses and Long-Term Visions. Postdigital Science and Education, 2(3), 695–699. doi:10.1007/s42438-020-00126-3.

Guppy, N., Verpoorten, D., Boud, D., Lin, L., Tai, J., & Bartolic, S. (2022). The post-COVID-19 future of digital learning in higher education: Views from educators, students, and other professionals in six countries. British Journal of Educational Technology, 53, 1750 – 1765. doi:10.1111/bjet.13212.

Kamali, M., & Bagheri-Nesami, M. (2022). The association between online self-regulated learning and E-learning acceptance among medical sciences students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Sciences, 9(3), 219–223. doi:10.4103/jnms.jnms_97_22.

Gqibani, S. L. (2022). Online teaching and learning due to Covid-19: Case study on the impact on engineering students. 2022 IEEE Global Engineering Education Conference (EDUCON). doi:10.1109/educon52537.2022.9766758.

Cobo-Rendón, R., Bruna Jofre, C., Lobos, K., Cisternas San Martin, N., & Guzman, E. (2022). Return to University Classrooms With Blended Learning: A Possible Post-pandemic COVID-19 Scenario. Frontiers in Education, 7. doi:10.3389/feduc.2022.957175.

Murphy, M. P. A. (2020). COVID-19 and emergency eLearning: Consequences of the securitization of higher education for post-pandemic pedagogy. Contemporary Security Policy, 41(3), 492–505. doi:10.1080/13523260.2020.1761749.

Rasheed, R. A., Kamsin, A., & Abdullah, N. A. (2020). Challenges in the online component of blended learning: A systematic review. Computers & Education, 144, 103701. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2019.103701.

Abreu, J. L. (2020). Coronavirus Times: Online education as a response to the crisis. Revista Daena (International Journal of Good Conscience), 15(1), 1-15. (In Spanish).

Broadbent, J. (2017). Comparing online and blended learner’s self-regulated learning strategies and academic performance. The Internet and Higher Education, 33, 24–32. doi:10.1016/j.iheduc.2017.01.004.

Pollock, N. B. (2022). Student performance and perceptions of anatomy and physiology across faceto-face, hybrid, and online teaching lab styles. Advances in Physiology Education, 46(3), 453–460. doi:10.1152/ADVAN.00074.2022.

Jamilah, J., & Fahyuni, E. F. (2022). The Future of Online Learning in the Post-COVID-19 Era. KnE Social Sciences, 497–505. doi:10.18502/kss.v7i10.11251.

Almendingen, K., Morseth, M. S., Gjølstad, E., Brevik, A., & Tørris, C. (2021). Student’s experiences with online teaching following COVID-19 lockdown: A mixed methods explorative study. PLoS ONE, 16(8), 250378. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0250378.

Cuevas Monzonís, N., Gabarda Méndez, C., Rodríguez Martín, A., & Cívico Ariza, A. (2022). Tecnología y educación superior en tiempos de pandemia: revisión de la literatura. Hachetetepé. Revista Científica de Educación y Comunicación, 24. doi:10.25267/hachetetepe.2022.i24.1105.

Chan, S. C. H., Wan, C. L. J., & Ko, S. (2019). Interactivity, active collaborative learning, and learning performance: The moderating role of perceived fun by using personal response systems. The International Journal of Management Education, 17(1), 94–102. doi:10.1016/j.ijme.2018.12.004.

Oyewola, O. M., Ajide, O. O., Osunbunmi, I. S., & Oyewola, Y. V. (2022). Examination of students’ academic performance in selected mechanical engineering courses prior-to-and-during COVID-19 era. Emerging Science Journal, 6, 247-261. doi:10.28991/esj-2022-SPER-017.

Ng, L. K., & Lo, C. K. (2022). Online Flipped and Gamification Classroom: Risks and Opportunities for the Academic Achievement of Adult Sustainable Learning during COVID-19 Pandemic. Sustainability (Switzerland), 14(19), 12396. doi:10.3390/su141912396.

Ahmed, H. D., & Asiksoy, G. (2021). The effects of gamified flipped learning method on student’s innovation skills, self-efficacy towards virtual physics lab course and perceptions. Sustainability (Switzerland), 13(18), 163. doi:10.3390/su131810163.

Dolenc, K., Šorgo, A., & Virtič, M. P. (2022). Perspectives on lessons from the covid-19 outbreak for post-pandemic higher education: Continuance intention model of forced online distance teaching. European Journal of Educational Research, 11(1), 163–177. doi:10.12973/eu-jer.11.1.163.

Peper, E., Wilson, V., Martin, M., Rosegard, E., & Harvey, R. (2021). Avoid zoom fatigue, be present and learn. NeuroRegulation, 8(1), 47–56. doi:10.15540/NR.8.1.47.

Curelaru, M., Curelaru, V., & Cristea, M. (2022). Students’ Perceptions of Online Learning during COVID-19 Pandemic: A Qualitative Approach. Sustainability (Switzerland), 14(13), 8138. doi:10.3390/su14138138.

García-Morales, V. J., Garrido-Moreno, A., & Martín-Rojas, R. (2021). The Transformation of Higher Education After the COVID Disruption: Emerging Challenges in an Online Learning Scenario. Frontiers in Psychology, 12(196), 1-6. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2021.616059.

McCrudden, M. T., Marchand, G., & Schutz, P. (2019). Mixed methods in educational psychology inquiry. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 57, 1–8. doi:10.1016/j.cedpsych.2019.01.008.

Chiodini, L., & Hauswirth, M. (2021). Wrong Answers for Wrong Reasons: The Risks of Ad Hoc Instruments. Proceedings of the 21st Koli Calling International Conference on Computing Education Research. doi:10.1145/3488042.3488045.

Sandín, B., Chorot, P., Lostao, L., Joiner, T. E., Santed, M. A., & Valiente, R. M. (1999). Escalas PANAS de afecto positivo y negativo: Validacion factorial y convergencia transcultural. Psicothema, 11(1), 37–51.

Fleiss, J. L., Levin, B., & Paik, M. C. (2013). Statistical methods for rates and proportions. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, United States.

Rezapour, M., Dehzangi, A., & Saadati, F. (2022). Students’ negative emotions and their rational and irrational behaviors during COVID-19 outbreak. PLoS ONE, 17(3), 264985. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0264985.

Checa-Domene, L., Luque de la Rosa, A., Gavín-Chocano, Ó., & Torrado, J. J. (2022). Students at Risk: Self-Esteem, Optimism and Emotional Intelligence in Post-Pandemic Times? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(19), 12499. doi:10.3390/ijerph191912499.

Cimsir, E. (2019). The roles of dispositional rumination, inferiority feelings and gender in interpersonal rumination experiences of college students. Journal of General Psychology, 146(3), 217–233. doi:10.1080/00221309.2018.1553844.

Lobos Peña, K., Sáez-Delgado, F., López-Angulo, Y., Arancibia Carvajal, S., & Maldonado Trapp, A. (2021). Mensajes emitidos por docentes universitarios a sus estudiantes con bajos desempeños académicos durante la enseñanza en línea por COVID-19. Interdisciplinaria Revista de Psicología y Ciencias Afines, 38(3), 303–317. doi:10.16888/interd.2021.38.3.18. (In Spanish).

Mujica, A. D., Peña, K. L., & Jofré, D. B. (2020). Promotion of self-regulation of learning in the university classroom. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile. (In Spanish).

Cobo-Rendón, R., Vega-Valenzuela, A., & García-Álvarez, D. (2020). Consideraciones institucionales sobre la Salud Mental en estudiantes universitarios durante la pandemia de Covid-19. CienciAmérica, 9(2), 277–284. doi:10.33210/ca.v9i2.322. (In Spanish).

Lei, H., Cui, Y., & Chiu, M. M. (2018). The relationship between teacher support and students’ academic emotions: A meta-analysis. Frontiers in Psychology, 8. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.02288.

Kedraka, K., Kaltsidis, C., Raikou, N., & Karalis, T. (2022). Considerations for University Pedagogy: Distance Learning One Year After the Covid-19 Pandemic Outbreak. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 10(3), 1. doi:10.11114/jets.v10i3.5445.

Nikolopoulou, K. (2022). Face-To-Face, Online and Hybrid Education: University Students’ Opinions and Preferences. Journal of Digital Educational Technology, 2(2), ep2206. doi:10.30935/jdet/12384.

Gómez, A. A. (2020). Covid-19: Point of No Return for the Digitization of Education?. Revista Internacional de Educación para la Justicia Social, 9(3). (In Spanish).

Li, D. (2022). The Shift to Online Classes During the Covid-19 Pandemic: Benefits, Challenges, and Required Improvements from the Students’ Perspective. Electronic Journal of E-Learning, 20(1), 1–18. doi:10.34190/ejel.20.1.2106.

Gherheș, V., Stoian, C. E., Fărcașiu, M. A., & Stanici, M. (2021). E-learning vs. Face-to-face learning: Analyzing students’ preferences and behaviors. Sustainability (Switzerland), 13(8), 4381. doi:10.3390/su13084381.

Maluenda-Albornoz, J., Berríos-Riquelme, J., Infante-Villagrán, V., & Lobos-Peña, K. (2023). Perceived Social Support and Engagement in First-Year Students: The Mediating Role of Belonging during COVID-19. Sustainability (Switzerland), 15(1), 597. doi:10.3390/su15010597.

Huerta Cuervo, R., & Vicario Solórzano, M. (2021). ¿Cómo se atendieron las competencias socioafectivas de los estudiantes de educación superior en la pandemia? Texto Livre: Linguagem e Tecnologia, 14(2), e33937. doi:10.35699/1983-3652.2021.33937. (In Spanish).

Huang, R. H., Liu, D. J., Guo, J., Yang, J. F., Zhao, J. H., Wei, X. F., ... & Chang, T. W. (2020). Guidance on flexible learning during campus closures: Ensuring course quality of higher education in COVID-19 outbreak. Smart Learning Institute of Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China.

Cedeño, N. V., Matute, A. L. C., Pincay, R. R., Hidalgo, M. M. P., & Hernández, M. G. C. (2020). Challenges of virtual education in the teaching-learning process during the Covid-19 pandemic. Dominio de las Ciencias, 6(4), 1201-1220. (In Spanish).

Pinquart, M., & Ebeling, M. (2020). Parental Educational Expectations and Academic Achievement in Children and Adolescents—a Meta-analysis. Educational Psychology Review, 32(2), 463–480. doi:10.1007/s10648-019-09506-z.

Dong-sim, K. & Won-sik, K.. (2018). TPACK of faculty in higher education: Current status and future directions. Educational Technology International, 19(1), 153–173.

Moreno, J. R., Montoro, M. A., & Colón, A. M. O. (2019). Changes in teacher training within the TPACK model framework: A systematic review. Sustainability (Switzerland), 11(7), 1870. doi:10.3390/su11071870.

Voithofer, R., Nelson, M. J., Han, G., & Caines, A. (2019). Factors that influence TPACK adoption by teacher educators in the US. Educational Technology Research and Development, 67(6), 1427–1453. doi:10.1007/s11423-019-09652-9.

Willermark, S. (2018). Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge: A Review of Empirical Studies Published From 2011 to 2016. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 56(3), 315–343. doi:10.1177/0735633117713114.

Poveda-Pineda, D. F., & Cifuentes-Medina, J. E. (2020). Incorporación de las tecnologías de información y comunicación (TIC) durante el proceso de aprendizaje en la educación superior. Formación Universitaria, 13(6), 95–104. doi:10.4067/s0718-50062020000600095. (In Spanish).

Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & Sweller, J. (2010). Cognitive load theory in health professional education: Design principles and strategies. Medical Education, 44(1), 85–93. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2923.2009.03498.x.

Sweller, J. (2020). Cognitive load theory and educational technology. Educational Technology Research and Development, 68(1), 1–16. doi:10.1007/s11423-019-09701-3.

Klepsch, M., & Seufert, T. (2020). Understanding instructional design effects by differentiated measurement of intrinsic, extraneous, and germane cognitive load. Instructional Science, 48(1), 45–77. doi:10.1007/s11251-020-09502-9.

Pedragosa, M. A., & Barranquero, M. F. (2021). Estrategias de colaboración con docentes universitarios para la migración de la enseñanza a la virtualidad en el contexto de la pandemia COVID19. Revista Iberoamericana de Tecnología En Educación y Educación En Tecnología, 28(28), e48. doi:10.24215/18509959.28.e48. (In Spanish).

Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2010). The first decade of the community of inquiry framework: A retrospective. Internet and Higher Education, 13(1–2), 5–9. doi:10.1016/j.iheduc.2009.10.003.

Valverde-Berrocoso, J., Garrido-Arroyo, M. del C., Burgos-Videla, C., & Morales-Cevallos, M. B. (2020). Trends in Educational Research about e-Learning: A Systematic Literature Review (2009–2018). Sustainability, 12(12), 5153. doi:10.3390/su12125153.

Castellanos-Reyes, D. (2020). 20 Years of the Community of Inquiry Framework. TechTrends, 64(4), 557–560. doi:10.1007/s11528-020-00491-7.

Garrison, D.R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2001). Critical thinking, cognitive presence, and computer conferencing in distance education. American Journal of Distance Education, 15, 7-23. doi:10.1080/08923640109527071.

Swan, K., Garrison, D. R., & Richardson, J. C. (2009). A Constructivist Approach to Online Learning. Information Technology and Constructivism in Higher Education, 43–57, IGI Global, Hershey, United States. doi:10.4018/978-1-60566-654-9.ch004.

Zimmerman, B. J. (1990). Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Achievement: An Overview. Educational Psychologist, 25(1), 3–17. doi:10.1207/s15326985ep2501_2.

Lobos, K., Cobo-Rendón, R., Mella-Norambuena, J., Maldonado-Trapp, A., Fernández Branada, C., & Bruna Jofré, C. (2022). Expectations and Experiences With Online Education During the COVID-19 Pandemic in University Students. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 815564. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2021.815564.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic Definitions and New Directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25(1), 54–67. doi:10.1006/ceps.1999.1020.

Moreno-Murcia, J. A., Huéscar Hernández, E., Andrés-Fabra, J. A., & Sánchez-Latorre, F. (2020). Adaptación y validación de los cuestionarios de apoyo a la autonomía y estilo controlador a la educación física: relación con el feedback. Revista Ciencias de La Actividad Física, 21(1), 1–16. doi:10.29035/rcaf.21.1.3. (In Spanish).

Jaramillo, C. (2020). Climas de aprendizaje de apoyo a la autonomía y su influencia en la educación superior: Una revisión de la literatura. 593 Digital Publisher CEIT, 6(1), 219–232. doi:10.33386/593dp.2021.1.366. (In Spanish).

Dickinson, A. (2017). Communicating with the online student: The impact of E-Mail tone on student performance and teacher evaluations. Journal of Educators Online, 14(2), 1–10. doi:10.9743/jeo.2017.14.2.5.

Meccawy, M., Meccawy, Z., & Alsobhi, A. (2021). Teaching and learning in survival mode: Students and faculty perceptions of distance education during the covid-19 lockdown. Sustainability (Switzerland), 13(14), 8053. doi:10.3390/su13148053.

Perea Moreno, A. J., Aguilera Ureña, M. J., Laguna Luna, A. M., De la Cruz Fernández, J. L., Torres Roldán, M., Torres Castro, J., Sol Prieto, M. C., Guzmán Díaz, G., De la Cruz Lovera, C., Martínez Valle, J. M., Manzano Agugliaro, F., Salmerón Manzano, E. M., Gil Montoya, F., & Alcayde García, A. (2018). El Uso De Los Sistemas De Respuesta Interactiva Como Herramienta Para Favorecer El Aprendizaje Proactivo En Ingeniería. Revista de Innovación y Buenas Prácticas Docentes, 5, 91–96. doi:10.21071/ripadoc.v5i.10977. (In Spanish).

Miguel Román, J. A. (2020). La educación superior en tiempos de pandemia: una visión desde dentro del proceso formativo. Revista Latinoamericana de Estudios Educativos, 50(especial), 13–40. doi:10.48102/rlee.2020.50.especial.95. (In Spanish).

Hartikainen, S., Rintala, H., Pylväs, L., & Nokelainen, P. (2019). The concept of active learning and the measurement of learning outcomes: A review of research in engineering higher education. Education Sciences, 9(4), 276. doi:10.3390/educsci9040276.

Tartavulea, C. V., Albu, C. N., Albu, N., Dieaconescu, R. I., & Petre, S. (2020). Online teaching practices and the effectiveness of the educational process in the wake of the Covid-19 pandemic. Amfiteatru Economic, 22(55), 920–936. doi:10.24818/EA/2020/55/920.

Zuña Macancela, E. R., Romero Berrones, W. J., Palma Vidal, J. C., & Soledispa Baque, C. J. (2020). Plataformas virtuales y fomento del aprendizaje colaborativo en estudiantes de Educación Superior. Sinergias Educativas, 5(1), 47–57. doi:10.37954/se.v5i1.71.

Matienzo, R. (2020). Evolution of the theory of significant learning and its application in higher education. Dialektika: Revista De Investigación Filosófica Y Teoría Social, 2(3), 17-26. (In Spanish).

Hampton, D., Culp-Roche, A., Hensley, A., Wilson, J., Otts, J. A., Thaxton-Wiggins, A., Fruh, S., & Moser, D. K. (2020). Self-efficacy and satisfaction with teaching in online courses. Nurse Educator, 45(6), 302–306. doi:10.1097/NNE.0000000000000805.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/ESJ-2023-SIED2-017


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Karla Lobos, Rubia Cobo-Rendon, Fabiola Saez-Delgado, Javier Mella, Nataly Cisternas